krainaksiazek a friendly introduction to mathematical logic 20044846

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A Mathematical Introduction To Logic - 2847441104

539,99 zł

A Mathematical Introduction To Logic

Książki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Mathematics & science>Mathematics>Mathematical foundations>Mathematical logic

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Mathematical Introduction to Logic - 2854258000

413,28 zł

Mathematical Introduction to Logic ELSEVIER

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

"A Mathematical Introduction to Logic, Second Edition", offers increased flexibility with topic coverage, allowing for choice in how to utilize the textbook in a course. The author has made this edition more accessible to better meet the needs of today's undergraduate mathematics and philosophy students. It is intended for the reader who has not studied logic previously, but who has some experience in mathematical reasoning. The material is presented on computer science issues such as computational complexity and database queries, with additional coverage of introductory material such as sets. This book offers increased flexibility of the text, allowing instructors more choice in how they use the textbook in courses, and reduced mathematical rigour to fit the needs of undergraduate students.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Concise Introduction to Mathematical Logic - 2854255566

232,78 zł

Concise Introduction to Mathematical Logic Springer

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Mathematical logic developed into a broad discipline with many applications in mathematics, informatics, linguistics and philosophy. This text introduces the fundamentals of this field, and this new edition has been thoroughly expanded and revised.§

Sklep: Libristo.pl

An Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Type Theory - 2854379628

592,12 zł

An Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Type Theory BERTRAMS

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

This introduction to mathematical logic starts with propositional calculus and first-order logic. Topics covered include syntax, semantics, soundness, completeness, independence, normal forms, vertical paths through negation normal formulas, compactness, Smullyan's Unifying Principle, natural deduction, cut-elimination, semantic tableaux, Skolemization, Herbrand's Theorem, unification, duality, interpolation, and definability.The last three chapters of the book provide an introduction to type theory (higher-order logic). It is shown how various mathematical concepts can be formalized in this very expressive formal language. This expressive notation facilitates proofs of the classical incompleteness and undecidability theorems which are very elegant and easy to understand. The discussion of semantics makes clear the important distinction between standard and nonstandard models which is so important in understanding puzzling phenomena such as the incompleteness theorems and Skolem's Paradox about countable models of set theory.Some of the numerous exercises require giving formal proofs. A computer program called ETPS which is available from the web facilitates doing and checking such exercises.Audience: This volume will be of interest to mathematicians, computer scientists, and philosophers in universities, as well as to computer scientists in industry who wish to use higher-order logic for hardware and software specification and verification.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

First Course in Mathematical Logic - 2854246034

50,99 zł

First Course in Mathematical Logic DOVER PUBLICATIONS

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

1. Symbolizing Sentences 1.1 Sentences 1.2 Sentential Connectives 1.3 The Form of Molecular Sentences 1.4 Symbolizing Sentences 1.5 The Sentential Connectives and Their Symbols--Or; Not; If . . . then . . . 1.6 Grouping and Parentheses. The Negation of a Molecular Sentence 1.7 Elimination of Some Parentheses 1.8 Summary 2. Logical Inference 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Rules of Inference and Proof Modus Ponendo Ponens Proofs Two-Step Proofs Double Negation Modus Tollendo Tollens More on Negation Adjunction and Simplification Disjunctions as Premises Modus Tollendo Ponens 2.3 Sentential Derivation 2.4 More About Parentheses 2.5 Further Rules of Inference Law of Addition Law of Hypothetica Syllogism Law of Disjunctive Syllogism Law of Disjunctive Simplification Commutative Laws De Morgan's Laws 2.6 Biconditional Sentences 2.7 Summary of Rules of Inference. Table of Rules of Inference 3. Truth and Validity 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Truth Value and Truth-Functional Connectives Conjunction Negation Disjunction Conditional Sentences Equivalence: Biconditional Sentences 3.3 Diagrams of Truth Value 3.4 Invalid Conclusions 3.5 Conditional Proof 3.6 Consistency 3.7 Indirect Proof 3.8Summary 4. Truth Tables 4.1 Truth Tables 4.2 Tautologies 4.3 Tautological Implication and Tautological Equivalence 4.4 Summary 5. Terms, Predicates, and Universal Quantifiers 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Terms 5.3 Predicates 5.4 Common Nouns as Predicates 5.5 Atomic Formulas and Variables 5.6 Universal Quantifiers 5.7 Two Standard Forms 6. Universal Specification and Laws of Identity 6.1 One Quantifier 6.2 Two or More Quantifiers 6.3 Logic of Identity 6.4 Truths of Logic 7. A Simple Mathematical System: Axioms for Addition 7.1 Commutative Axiom 7.2 Associative Axiom 7.3 Axiom for Zero 7.4 Axiom for Negative Numbers 8. Universal Generalization 8.1 Theorems with Variables 8.2 Theorems with Universal Quantifiers Index

Sklep: Libristo.pl

First Order Mathematical Logic - 2854310247

41,88 zł

First Order Mathematical Logic Dover Publications

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

1. Introduction 1. Rules of Inference 2. Set Theory 3. Axiomatic Theories 4. Predicates and Quantifiers 5. Statement Connectives 6. The Interpretation of Predicates and Quantifiers 7. The Predicate Calculus and First Order Theories 8. The Omission of Parentheses 9. Substitution of a Term for a Variable 10. Removing and Inserting Quantifiers 11. Denials 2. The Predicate Calculus 12. Formulation 13. The Statement Calculus 14. The Deudction Theorem 15. The Completeness Theorem for the Statement Calculus 16. Applications of the Completeness Theorem for the Statement Calculus 17. Quantifiers 18. Equivalence and Replacement 19. Theorem Schemes 20. Normal Forms 21. Equality 3. First Order Theories 22. Definition and Examples 23. Deduction 24. Number Theory 25. Consistency and Completeness 26. Truth 27. The Completeness Theorem 28. Independence 29. Completeness and Categoricity 30. Decidability 31. Gödel's Theorem Notes; References; Addendum; Index of Symbols; Subject Index

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Introduction to Actuarial and Financial Mathematical Methods - 2854359506

289,98 zł

Introduction to Actuarial and Financial Mathematical Methods ACADEMIC PRESS

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

This self-contained module for independent study covers the subjects most often needed by non-mathematics graduates, such as fundamental calculus, linear algebra, probability, and basic numerical methods. The easily-understandable text of Introduction to Actuarial and Mathematical Methods features examples, motivations, and lots of practice from a large number of end-of-chapter questions. For readers with diverse backgrounds entering programs of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, the Society of Actuaries, and the CFA Institute, Introduction to Actuarial and Mathematical Methods can provide a consistency of mathematical knowledge from the outset.§§Presents a self-study mathematics refresher course for the first two years of an actuarial program§Features examples, motivations, and practice problems from a large number of end-of-chapter questions designed to promote independent thinking and the application of mathematical ideas§Practitioner friendly rather than academic§Ideal for self-study and as a reference source for readers with diverse backgrounds entering programs of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, the Society of Actuaries, and the CFA Institute

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Introduction to Higher-Order Categorical Logic - 2854298833

243,18 zł

Introduction to Higher-Order Categorical Logic Cambridge University Press

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

In this book the authors reconcile two different viewpoints of the foundations of mathematics, namely mathematical logic and category theory. In Part I, they show that typed lambda-calculi, a formulation of higher order logic, and cartesian closed categories are essentially the same. In Part II, it is demonstrated that another formulation of higher order logic (intuitionistic type theories) is closely related to topos theory. Part III is devoted to recursive functions. Numerous applications of the close relationship between traditional logic and the algebraic language of category theory are given. The authors have included an introduction to category theory and develop the necessary logic as required, making the book essentially self-contained. Detailed historical references are provided throughout, and each section concludes with a set of exercises. Thus it is well-suited for graduate courses and research in mathematics and logic. Researchers in theoretical computer science, artificial intelligence and mathematical linguistics will also find this an accessible introduction to a subject of increasing application to these disciplines.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Introduction to Logic - 2852492059

72,55 zł

Introduction to Logic Important Books

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Alfred Tarski, one of the greatest logicians of all time, is widely thought of as 'the man who defined truth'. His work on the concepts of truth and logical consequence as defined by mathematical theory are cornerstones of modern logic, influencing developments in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. His teaching on logic and mathematics culminated in the 1941 classic INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC, which uses the method of deduction and explores logic and methodology as it pertains to creating mathematical theories. This is the original 1941 edition. DISCLAIMER: this version is based on a typeset scanned with editorial pen markings present which may be either distracting or insightful and helpful to some readers.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Introduction To Higher - Order Categorical Logic - 2844437858

279,99 zł

Introduction To Higher - Order Categorical Logic

Książki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Mathematics & science>Mathematics>Mathematical foundationsKsiążki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Humanities...

This Work Attempts To Reconcile Two Different Viewpoints Of The Foundations Of Mathematics, Namely Mathematical Logic And Category Theory. It Contains An Introduction To Category Theory And A Set Of Exercises Which Accompanies Each Section.

Sklep: Gigant.pl

Mathematical Writing - 2849852193

133,68 zł

Mathematical Writing Springer, Berlin

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student.§§The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae and structure a definition.§§Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150 of them have complete solutions, to facilitate self-study.§§Mathematical Writing will be of interest to all mathematics students who want to raise the quality of their coursework, reports, exams, and dissertations.§

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Logic, Mathematics, and Computer Science - 2854443992

190,13 zł

Logic, Mathematics, and Computer Science Springer, Berlin

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

This text for the first or second year undergraduate in mathematics, logic, computer science, or social sciences, introduces the reader to logic, proofs, sets, and number theory. It also serves as an excellent independent study reference and resource for instructors. Adapted from Foundations of Logic and Mathematics: Applications to Science and Cryptography

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Neighborhood Semantics for Modal Logic - 2859267238

86,14 zł

Neighborhood Semantics for Modal Logic Springer, Berlin

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Neighborhood models form an interesting and rich class of mathematical structures that can be fruitfully studies using modal logic. Originally, neighborhood models were introduced to provide a semantics for weak systems of modal logic (the so-called non-normal modal logics). This book is a state-of-the-art introduction to the main techniques and results about neighborhood semantics for modal logic. An central goal of this book is to highlight both the pitfalls and key applications of neighborhood models. -size: initial; background-repeat: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial;"The book discusses a broad range of topics, including standard logical results (e.g. completeness, decidability and definability); bisimulations for neighborhood models and other model-theoretic constructions; comparisons with other semantics for modal logic (e.g., relational models, topological models, plausibility models); neighborhood semantics for first-order modal logic, applications in game theory (coalitional logic and game logic); applications in epistemic logic (logics of evidence and belief and logics of common belief); and non-normal modal logics with dynamic modalities. The book can be used as the primary text for seminars on philosophical logic focused on non-normal modal logics; as a supplemental text for courses on modal logic, logic in AI, or philosophical logic (either at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level); or as the primary source for researchers interested in learning about the uses of neighborhood semantics in philosophical logic and game theory.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Logic Reformed - 2854470122

268,88 zł

Logic Reformed Verlag Peter Lang

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Wittgenstein claimed that Mathematical Logic had completely deformed the thinking of mathematicians and philosophers, but the full realisation of this insight has yet to sink home. In this book it is first shown that some 20th century criticisms of classical logic are misguided; specifically those which take issue, in one way or another, with Reductio, or Indirect Proof. A considerable number of points are made, against both Intuitionistic Logic, and Paraconsistent Logic, on this score. The book then moves on to propose some needed adjustments to classical logic, by incorporating elements in natural language not standardly symbolised, such as second-order nominalisations, and mass terms. The final result is not only an improvement in our understanding of concepts and continua; also infinitesimals, fictions, cross-reference, and causation come to be better analysed. Throughout, a formal logic is used which is itself an advance on Frege-Russell logic, namely Hilbert's epsilon calculus. The present book provides a complete, and independent introduction both to its history, and to its many applications in philosophical logic.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Algebraic Logic - 2854195495

51,14 zł

Algebraic Logic Dover Publications

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Beginning with an introduction to the concepts of algebraic logic, this concise volume features ten articles by a prominent mathematician that originally appeared in journals between 1954

Sklep: Libristo.pl

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