# krainaksiazek a friendly introduction to mathematical logic 20044846

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### A Mathematical Introduction To Logic

**Książki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Mathematics & science>Mathematics>Mathematical foundations>Mathematical logic**

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Sklep: Gigant.pl

### Mathematical Introduction to Logic ELSEVIER

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

"A Mathematical Introduction to Logic, Second Edition", offers increased flexibility with topic coverage, allowing for choice in how to utilize the textbook in a course. The author has made this edition more accessible to better meet the needs of today's undergraduate mathematics and philosophy students. It is intended for the reader who has not studied logic previously, but who has some experience in mathematical reasoning. The material is presented on computer science issues such as computational complexity and database queries, with additional coverage of introductory material such as sets. This book offers increased flexibility of the text, allowing instructors more choice in how they use the textbook in courses, and reduced mathematical rigour to fit the needs of undergraduate students.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### An Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Type Theory BERTRAMS

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

This introduction to mathematical logic starts with propositional calculus and first-order logic. Topics covered include syntax, semantics, soundness, completeness, independence, normal forms, vertical paths through negation normal formulas, compactness, Smullyan's Unifying Principle, natural deduction, cut-elimination, semantic tableaux, Skolemization, Herbrand's Theorem, unification, duality, interpolation, and definability.The last three chapters of the book provide an introduction to type theory (higher-order logic). It is shown how various mathematical concepts can be formalized in this very expressive formal language. This expressive notation facilitates proofs of the classical incompleteness and undecidability theorems which are very elegant and easy to understand. The discussion of semantics makes clear the important distinction between standard and nonstandard models which is so important in understanding puzzling phenomena such as the incompleteness theorems and Skolem's Paradox about countable models of set theory.Some of the numerous exercises require giving formal proofs. A computer program called ETPS which is available from the web facilitates doing and checking such exercises.Audience: This volume will be of interest to mathematicians, computer scientists, and philosophers in universities, as well as to computer scientists in industry who wish to use higher-order logic for hardware and software specification and verification.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Concise Introduction to Mathematical Logic Springer

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

Mathematical logic developed into a broad discipline with many applications in mathematics, informatics, linguistics and philosophy. This text introduces the fundamentals of this field, and this new edition has been thoroughly expanded and revised.§

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Friendly Introduction to Number Theory PEARSON

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

For one-semester undergraduate courses in Elementary Number Theory. A Friendly Introduction to Number Theory, Fourth Edition is designed to introduce students to the overall themes and methodology of mathematics through the detailed study of one particular facet-number theory. Starting with nothing more than basic high school algebra, students are gradually led to the point of actively performing mathematical research while getting a glimpse of current mathematical frontiers. The writing is appropriate for the undergraduate audience and includes many numerical examples, which are analyzed for patterns and used to make conjectures. Emphasis is on the methods used for proving theorems rather than on specific results.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### First Course in Mathematical Logic DOVER PUBLICATIONS

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

1. Symbolizing Sentences 1.1 Sentences 1.2 Sentential Connectives 1.3 The Form of Molecular Sentences 1.4 Symbolizing Sentences 1.5 The Sentential Connectives and Their Symbols--Or; Not; If . . . then . . . 1.6 Grouping and Parentheses. The Negation of a Molecular Sentence 1.7 Elimination of Some Parentheses 1.8 Summary 2. Logical Inference 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Rules of Inference and Proof Modus Ponendo Ponens Proofs Two-Step Proofs Double Negation Modus Tollendo Tollens More on Negation Adjunction and Simplification Disjunctions as Premises Modus Tollendo Ponens 2.3 Sentential Derivation 2.4 More About Parentheses 2.5 Further Rules of Inference Law of Addition Law of Hypothetica Syllogism Law of Disjunctive Syllogism Law of Disjunctive Simplification Commutative Laws De Morgan's Laws 2.6 Biconditional Sentences 2.7 Summary of Rules of Inference. Table of Rules of Inference 3. Truth and Validity 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Truth Value and Truth-Functional Connectives Conjunction Negation Disjunction Conditional Sentences Equivalence: Biconditional Sentences 3.3 Diagrams of Truth Value 3.4 Invalid Conclusions 3.5 Conditional Proof 3.6 Consistency 3.7 Indirect Proof 3.8Summary 4. Truth Tables 4.1 Truth Tables 4.2 Tautologies 4.3 Tautological Implication and Tautological Equivalence 4.4 Summary 5. Terms, Predicates, and Universal Quantifiers 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Terms 5.3 Predicates 5.4 Common Nouns as Predicates 5.5 Atomic Formulas and Variables 5.6 Universal Quantifiers 5.7 Two Standard Forms 6. Universal Specification and Laws of Identity 6.1 One Quantifier 6.2 Two or More Quantifiers 6.3 Logic of Identity 6.4 Truths of Logic 7. A Simple Mathematical System: Axioms for Addition 7.1 Commutative Axiom 7.2 Associative Axiom 7.3 Axiom for Zero 7.4 Axiom for Negative Numbers 8. Universal Generalization 8.1 Theorems with Variables 8.2 Theorems with Universal Quantifiers Index

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### First Order Mathematical Logic Dover Publications

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

1. Introduction 1. Rules of Inference 2. Set Theory 3. Axiomatic Theories 4. Predicates and Quantifiers 5. Statement Connectives 6. The Interpretation of Predicates and Quantifiers 7. The Predicate Calculus and First Order Theories 8. The Omission of Parentheses 9. Substitution of a Term for a Variable 10. Removing and Inserting Quantifiers 11. Denials 2. The Predicate Calculus 12. Formulation 13. The Statement Calculus 14. The Deudction Theorem 15. The Completeness Theorem for the Statement Calculus 16. Applications of the Completeness Theorem for the Statement Calculus 17. Quantifiers 18. Equivalence and Replacement 19. Theorem Schemes 20. Normal Forms 21. Equality 3. First Order Theories 22. Definition and Examples 23. Deduction 24. Number Theory 25. Consistency and Completeness 26. Truth 27. The Completeness Theorem 28. Independence 29. Completeness and Categoricity 30. Decidability 31. Gödel's Theorem Notes; References; Addendum; Index of Symbols; Subject Index

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Introduction to Actuarial and Financial Mathematical Methods ACADEMIC PRESS

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

This self-contained module for independent study covers the subjects most often needed by non-mathematics graduates, such as fundamental calculus, linear algebra, probability, and basic numerical methods. The easily-understandable text of Introduction to Actuarial and Mathematical Methods features examples, motivations, and lots of practice from a large number of end-of-chapter questions. For readers with diverse backgrounds entering programs of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, the Society of Actuaries, and the CFA Institute, Introduction to Actuarial and Mathematical Methods can provide a consistency of mathematical knowledge from the outset.§§Presents a self-study mathematics refresher course for the first two years of an actuarial program§Features examples, motivations, and practice problems from a large number of end-of-chapter questions designed to promote independent thinking and the application of mathematical ideas§Practitioner friendly rather than academic§Ideal for self-study and as a reference source for readers with diverse backgrounds entering programs of the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, the Society of Actuaries, and the CFA Institute

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Introduction to Higher-Order Categorical Logic Cambridge University Press

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

In this book the authors reconcile two different viewpoints of the foundations of mathematics, namely mathematical logic and category theory. In Part I, they show that typed lambda-calculi, a formulation of higher order logic, and cartesian closed categories are essentially the same. In Part II, it is demonstrated that another formulation of higher order logic (intuitionistic type theories) is closely related to topos theory. Part III is devoted to recursive functions. Numerous applications of the close relationship between traditional logic and the algebraic language of category theory are given. The authors have included an introduction to category theory and develop the necessary logic as required, making the book essentially self-contained. Detailed historical references are provided throughout, and each section concludes with a set of exercises. Thus it is well-suited for graduate courses and research in mathematics and logic. Researchers in theoretical computer science, artificial intelligence and mathematical linguistics will also find this an accessible introduction to a subject of increasing application to these disciplines.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Introduction To Higher - Order Categorical Logic

**Książki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Mathematics & science>Mathematics>Mathematical foundationsKsiążki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Humanities...**

This Work Attempts To Reconcile Two Different Viewpoints Of The Foundations Of Mathematics, Namely Mathematical Logic And Category Theory. It Contains An Introduction To Category Theory And A Set Of Exercises Which Accompanies Each Section.

Sklep: Gigant.pl

### Introduction to Logic Important Books

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

Alfred Tarski, one of the greatest logicians of all time, is widely thought of as 'the man who defined truth'. His work on the concepts of truth and logical consequence as defined by mathematical theory are cornerstones of modern logic, influencing developments in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. His teaching on logic and mathematics culminated in the 1941 classic INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC, which uses the method of deduction and explores logic and methodology as it pertains to creating mathematical theories. This is the original 1941 edition. DISCLAIMER: this version is based on a typeset scanned with editorial pen markings present which may be either distracting or insightful and helpful to some readers.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Mathematical Writing Springer, Berlin

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student.§§The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae and structure a definition.§§Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150 of them have complete solutions, to facilitate self-study.§§Mathematical Writing will be of interest to all mathematics students who want to raise the quality of their coursework, reports, exams, and dissertations.§

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Logic, Mathematics, and Computer Science Springer, Berlin

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

This text for the first or second year undergraduate in mathematics, logic, computer science, or social sciences, introduces the reader to logic, proofs, sets, and number theory. It also serves as an excellent independent study reference and resource for instructors. Adapted from Foundations of Logic and Mathematics: Applications to Science and Cryptography

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Logic Reformed Verlag Peter Lang

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

Wittgenstein claimed that Mathematical Logic had completely deformed the thinking of mathematicians and philosophers, but the full realisation of this insight has yet to sink home. In this book it is first shown that some 20th century criticisms of classical logic are misguided; specifically those which take issue, in one way or another, with Reductio, or Indirect Proof. A considerable number of points are made, against both Intuitionistic Logic, and Paraconsistent Logic, on this score. The book then moves on to propose some needed adjustments to classical logic, by incorporating elements in natural language not standardly symbolised, such as second-order nominalisations, and mass terms. The final result is not only an improvement in our understanding of concepts and continua; also infinitesimals, fictions, cross-reference, and causation come to be better analysed. Throughout, a formal logic is used which is itself an advance on Frege-Russell logic, namely Hilbert's epsilon calculus. The present book provides a complete, and independent introduction both to its history, and to its many applications in philosophical logic.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Algebraic Logic Dover Publications

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

Beginning with an introduction to the concepts of algebraic logic, this concise volume features ten articles by a prominent mathematician that originally appeared in journals between 1954

Sklep: Libristo.pl

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