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Moral Philosophy of Aristotle Forgotten Books
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Excerpt from The Moral Philosophy of Aristotle: Consisting of a Translation of the Nicomachean Ethics, and of the Paraphrase Attributed to Andronicus of Rhodes, With an Introductory Analysis of Each Book Four years ago one of the most eminent of English Aristotelians expressed the opinion that "the problem how to translate Aristotle into English has not yet been solved ... The problem is how to convey, in readable English, a philosophical style, full of technical terms for which we have no exact representatives. Circumlocution, or paraphrase, becomes necessary; the question is, how to use this with the greatest tact, so as, while conveying Aristotle's exact meaning, to retain something of his manner." (Sir Alexander Grant, art. Aristotle. in the 'Encyclopædia Britannica,' 9th edition, vol. ii. p. 523.) The present work, though planned and begun before these remarks appeared, may be regarded as being, to some extent, in answer to the challenge which they imply. Its aim is to make the Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle intelligible to a modern reader. It endeavours to do so chiefly by modifying the style in which tho original is written. For whether it be that the mind of an average Greek student was capable of greater concentration than the mind of an average English student, or that what remains is rather a rough draft than a completed treatise, there is no doubt that the style of Aristotle's work is to most modern readers intricate and obscure. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.
La Vision chez Platon et Aristote Academia Verlag GmbH
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Ni les considérations aristotéliciennes ni les considérations platoniciennes sur la vision ne se bornent à répondre à la question comment voit-on?, mais dans l'élaboration même de cette réponse dépassent cette question vers une autre, plus fondamentale: qu'est-ce que voir? La première de ces questions relève d'une enquête scientifique qui vise à expliquer un phénomène par la description de son mécanisme. Elle est pleinement prise en compte par Platon et Aristote, qui proposent tous deux un exposé particulier des causes conduisant à la formation de la sensation visuelle. Ces exposés diffèrent nettement dans leur contenu, mais se trouvent en fait relativement à égalité quant à leur pertinence scientifique: à la fois quant à leur capacité de rendre compte du phénomène qu'ils se proposent d'expliquer, et quant à l'économie des moyens mis en ouvre pour parvenir à cette explication. oe la différence, la question qu'est-ce que voir? déborde la simple intention de rendre compte du fonctionnement d'un phénomène, et inscrit la vision dans des problématiques qui touchent l'être de ce qui voit, l'être de ce qui est vu et du monde dans lequel ce processus a lieu; ou qui touchent aussi bien l'ontologie que l'éthique, le fondement de la connaissance que l'esthétique ou même la théologie. La théorie de Platon révèle sa profondeur quand on saisit que la vision sensible est celle d'une âme divine qui vit sur terre en exil, tandis que les intentions d'Aristote sont prioritairement épistémologiques; sa théorie permet de garantir la vérité du sens visuel, la réalité de la couleur, mais aussi la présence immédiate et authentique de l'astre divin solaire au sein du lieu soumis à la génération et à la corruption. *** Neither Aristotle nor Plato content themselves with answering the question: How do we see?. In their examination of this scientific issue, they go further, and answer the more fundamental question: What is seeing? The first question pertains to scientific enquiry, which seeks to explain a phenomenon by describing its mechanism. Both Aristotle and Plato give an accurate account of the causes that produce visual sensation. Their accounts differ, but are quite similar with regard to their scientific relevance; they have quite the same capacities and the same failures in their explanation of vision, achieved by equally economical means. The other question - What is seeing? - transcends the mere intention of giving an account of a mechanism, and considers vision from the viewpoint of problems concerning the being of the seer, of what is seen, and of the world in which this process takes place; and it touches upon issues concerning ontology as well as ethics, epistemology and aesthetics, and even theology. Plato's theory reveals its depth when we grasp that sensible vision is that of a divine soul that lives on earth as in exile. Through vision, this soul may seek to escape from its condition, and recover its genuine nature; for vision is the only sense by which we can reach the stars, which, for Plato, feature the same harmony as that of the soul when it was first formed by the demiurge. Yet vision can also plunge the soul further down into its exile. Hence, the Platonic conception of mirror images, which he defines as real bodies, resulting from the coalescence between two fires; they actually occur at the surface of the mirror, without there being any reflection in the modern sense of the term. In this way, Plato refuses to endorse the idea that the mirror image is mere indirect vision, or something virtual, thereby saving the image in the proper sense. Thus, through vision, the soul can encounter inferior realities, which drag it further and further way from the things that are genuine and true. Aristotle's concerns are primary epistemological. His theory provides a guarantee of the truth and reliability of the sense of sight, whereas Plato's theory defined the vision of color as pure sensation, without there being any particular reality in the observed body itself. In Aristotle's theory, the act of vision becomes instantaneous, so that the vision of a color is strictly simultaneous with the state of the body in which the color is observed. This instantaneity is the condition by which, in the Aristotelian physical system, the oneness of time itself can be attained. Moreover, Aristotle's concept of light provides the basis for the immediate and authentic presence of the divine solar star in the midst of the place that is subject to generation and to corruption. Yet Aristotle's theory, as set forth in the De anima and the De sensu, so closely related to the problem of truth, was to prove helpless once the philosopher is forced to explain peculiar phenomena (such as the halo, or the rainbow), which Greek optics had already considered to be formed by visual reflection. Aristotle will then temporarily forget his own theory, and adopt precisely the one he had previously condemned.
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