krainaksiazek american scientists and nuclear weapons policy 20106957

- znaleziono 11 produktów w 1 sklepie

The Decision to employ Nuclear Weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki - 2853163151

265,75 zł

The Decision to employ Nuclear Weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki Anchor Academic Publishing

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Throughout human history there may hardly be found any other single decision that still causes such high amounts of scholarly debate as does the dropping of Atomic Bombs upon the Japanese city of Hiroshima in August 6th 1945, and respectively, three days later upon the city of Nagasaki. These events have caused close to 100 000 casualties in the civilian population, and yet, it does not include all of those persons who would later succumb to radiation sickness or severe birth deformations. §Historians still debate the alleged plurality of motives underlying this momentous decision. The debate's result is a polarized scholarly discord which by now virtually abounds in a multitude of different theories, and competing suppositions. On the one hand, there are those scholars who argue that the decision rested solely on grounds of military expediency, foremost on the necessity to shorten a gruelling war, and to save the lives of American soldiers. §On the other hand, historians offer the explanation that American policy makers above all wanted to exhibit their country's enormous military potency, and therefore, Hiroshima and Nagasaki should demonstrate the vast destructive potential which presently solely the United States had at its command, and so, counter post-war ambitions of the Soviet Union.§The author of this study analyses the contextual circumstances in the spring and summer of 1945, and moreover, the principal motives of the key American government officials. Accordingly, the author offers his own substantive and conclusive answer to the question that concerns the primary factors and/or ostensibly ulterior motives that led American decision makers to issue the consequential order to detonate Atomic Bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki. First and foremost, the findings rest upon a critical and comprehensive engagement, and are based on the available documentary evidence from this time.


Breaking the Nuclear Impasse - 2826957001

72,30 zł

Breaking the Nuclear Impasse The Century Foundation

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Curbing nuclear weapons has never been a more urgent priority for nations both great and small, but the global system of nuclear controls seems paralyzed. Have the instruments that once worked so well lost their efficacy? What can be done to clear the obstructions and break this impasse? In this volume, some of the world's most recognized thinkers on nuclear issues take on these questions. Can the market be harnessed as an early warning system for identifying risky nuclear behavior? Is an international fuel bank a solution against nuclear proliferation, or a Trojan horse opening the door to it? What hidden roadblocks might derail the India/U.S. nuclear deal? Is the era of arms control over, or will the new proliferation threats help nuclear disarmament find a place on the policy table?Readers who are new to the field, and those who are steeped in it, will find penetrating insights into today's nuclear challenges - and a glimpse of the road ahead. The contributors to the volume include: Hans Blix, chairman of the Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission; Christopher F. Chyba, professor of astrophysical sciences and international affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University; Joseph Cirincione, senior fellow and director for nuclear policy at the Center for American Progress; Jayantha Dhanapala, former UN under-secretary-general for disarmament affairs from 1998 to 2003 and the president of the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference; Michael Krepon, cofounder of the Henry L. Stimson Center; William C. Potter, director of the Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies; and, Henry D. Sokolski, executive director of the Nonproliferation Policy Education Center.


Nuclear Terrorism - 2852754075

66,44 zł

Nuclear Terrorism Constable

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Americans in the twenty-first century are keenly aware of the many forms of terrorism: hijackings, biological attacks, chemical weapons. But, the deadliest form is almost too scary to think about - a terrorist group exploding a nuclear device in an American city. In the urgent call to action, Graham Allison, one of America's leading experts on nuclear weapons and national security, presents the evidence for two provocative, compelling conclusions. First, if policy makers in Washington keep doing what they are currently doing about the threat, a nuclear terrorist attack on America is inevitable. Second, the surprising and largely unrecognized good news is that nuclear terrorism is, in fact, preventable. Allison offers an ambitious but feasible blueprint for eliminating the possibility of nuclear terrorist attacks, if we are willing to face the issue squarely.


People of the Bomb - 2843909739

118,38 zł

People of the Bomb University of Minnesota Press

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

We have had the bomb on our minds since 1945. It was first our weaponry and then our diplomacy, and now it's our economy. How can we suppose that something so monstrously powerful would not, after forty years, compose our identity? -E. L. DoctorowThis book tells the story of how-like it or not, know it or not-we have become "the people of the bomb." Integrating fifteen years of field research at weapons laboratories across the United States with discussion of popular movies, political speeches, media coverage of war, and the arcane literature of defense intellectuals, Hugh Gusterson shows how the military-industrial complex has built consent for its programs and, in the process, taken the public "nuclear."People of the Bomb mixes empathic and vivid portraits of individual weapons scientists with hard-hitting scrutiny of defense intellectuals' inability to foresee the end of the cold war, government rhetoric on missile defense, official double standards about nuclear proliferation, and pork barrel politics in the nuclear weapons complex. Overall, the book assembles a disturbing picture of the ways in which the military-industrial complex has transformed our public culture and personal psychology in the half century since we entered the nuclear age.Hugh Gusterson is associate professor of anthropology and science studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and professor of public policy at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He is the author of Nuclear Rites: A Weapons Laboratory at the End of the Cold War (1996) and coeditor of Cultures of Insecurity: States, Communities, and the Production of Danger (Minnesota, 1999). Lynne Cheney's American Council of Trustees andAlumni named him one of the most dangerous intellectuals in the United States today.


Citizen Scientist - 2841667254

208,76 zł

Citizen Scientist American Institute of Physics

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

"Blurb & Contents" Frank von Hippel has been at the forefront of those scientists grappling with the troubled legacy of our Nuclear Age. Von Hippel offers insights about the choices we must make and how science can help us to make them. Topics include nuclear power, atomic weapons, disarmament, energy and the future of automobiles. The scientist's role in public life and the importance of "making trouble" is emphasized. Of interest to physicists, particularly those working in nuclear physics, policy makers, environmentalists and those concerned with nuclear disarmament and the role of science in society.


Oceanographers and the Cold War - 2842086024

435,11 zł

Oceanographers and the Cold War University of Washington Press

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

"Oceanographers and the Cold War" is about patronage, politics, and the community of scientists. It is the first book to examine the study of the oceans during the Cold War era and explore the international focus of American oceanographers, taking into account the roles of the U.S. Navy, United States foreign policy, and scientists throughout the world. Jacob Hamblin demonstrates that to understand the history of American oceanography, one must consider its role in both conflict and cooperation with other nations. Paradoxically, American oceanography after World War II was enmeshed in the military-industrial complex while characterized by close international cooperation. The military dimension of marine science - with its involvement in submarine acoustics, fleet operations, and sea-launched nuclear missiles - coexisted with data exchange programs with the Soviet Union and global operations in seas without borders. From an uneasy cooperation with the Soviet bloc in the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58, to the NATO Science Committee in the late 1960s, which excluded the Soviet Union, to the U.S. Marine Sciences Council, which served as an important national link between scientists and the government, "Oceanographers and the Cold War" reveals the military and foreign policy goals served by U.S. government involvement in cooperative activities between scientists, such as joint cruises and expeditions. It demonstrates as well the extent to which oceanographers used international cooperation as a vehicle to pursue patronage from military, government, and commercial sponsors during the Cold War, as they sought support for their work by creating 'disciples of marine science' wherever they could.


Britannica - Iran - 2834158745

60,25 zł

Britannica - Iran Turner Publishing Company

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

On June 24, 2005, after nearly ten years of supporting liberal reform, the people of Iran surprised the world by electing the conservative mayor of Tehran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, as their new president. Soon after, the new president announced Iran would restart its uranium enrichment program, drawing international criticism and condemnation from leaders in Europe and the United States. Many observers suspect it is the desire to produce not nuclear energy but nuclear weapons that lies behind Iran's controversial decision. Ever since President George W. Bush described Iran, Iraq, and North Korea as the "Axis of Evil," Iran has garnered increased international attention and threatens to become the new focus of European and American foreign policy. Now you can have at your fingertips up-to-date, must-know details on this complex, pivotal country-straight from one of the most trusted sources of information around the globe. The first in a major new series from Encyclopedia Britannica, Iran presents a balanced, sophisticated examination of Iran's social, cultural, and political landscape, past and present. From the constitutional revolution to the hostage crisis to weapons of mass destruction, this thorough guide provides the necessary background to comprehend all the important, ongoing issues surrounding this enigmatic country. Information on such leaders as Cyrus the Great and Nobel Peace Prize winner Shirin Ebadi, as well as on historical events like the Iran-Contra Affair and the Iran-Iraq War, place current developments into the broader context of world history, the Muslim world, the War on Terror, and the push for democratic reform in the Middle East. Every concise entry-from Afghanistan and Ayatollah Khomeini to Shari'ah law and the Shah-promotes the deeper understanding of issues and events that only Encyclopedia Britannica can provide. Since 1768, Encyclopedia Britannica has been a leading provider of learning products and one of the world's most trusted sources of information.


Iron Curtains on Paper - The Origins of the Cold War 1917 - 1947 - 2826630223

168,70 zł

Iron Curtains on Paper - The Origins of the Cold War 1917 - 1947 GRIN Verlag

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Thesis (M.A.) from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: USA, grade: 1,3, University of Leipzig (Institut für Amerikanistik), course: US Foreign Policy, language: English, abstract: (...)As a first step, this paper is to investigate different approaches historians have offered in the course of time. Chapter 2 starts off with a summary of the main waves of Cold War historiography (...) Chapters 3 to 7 are to study the most predominant perspectives and factors presented in chapter 2 in an attempt to show why some debates are very useful, some unnecessary, and some hardly solvable due to a lack of evidence. At the same time, this paper attempts to offer a good overview of main events shaping European and American history between 1917 and 1947.The third chapter is to explore the roots of the communist experiment in the Soviet Union (...) to find out in how far the two decades preceding the Cold War can add to understand its outcome. In 1941, relations between the U.S. and S.U. took a completely new shape when both decided to come together to fight Nazi-Germany and Japan. The Great Alliance set out to save the world from fascism (...). Chapter 4 will mainly focus on the conflicts that arose during the war to, again, find out in how far they shaped the onset of the Cold War.Although the emergence of the atomic bomb and diplomatic decisions surrounding it (in particular the fact that Russia was only informed about it in Potsdam) place it in one line with war-time conflicts outlined in the previous chapter, it seems to deserve an extra section, since the development of nuclear weapons ultimately changed the cause of warfare and thus, the course and outcome of the Cold War itself. Furthermore, the level of violence the nuclear attacks on Japan reached raises serious questions about the very necessity of employing such a weapon. The debate studied is polarized between those defending the use of the bombs and those blaming the Truman government (...) . Within two years after the war s ending, the great alliance quickly crumbled. Soon, hostility replaced cooperation and the old discrepancy between capitalism and communism regained predominance in contemporary rhetoric. Chapter 6 will not only outline the events leading to the breakdown of the alliance but also explore the questions whether there was the intention to keep the alliance alive at all and if so how this change of attitude came into being.Finally, the last part will investigate the first major political attack the United States launched against the Soviet Union - the Marshall Plan - which considerably impacted on the future distribution of power in Europe.


Oppenheimer - 2842079720

145,25 zł

Oppenheimer University of Chicago Press

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

At a time when the Manhattan Project was synonymous with large-scale science, physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-67) represented the new sociocultural power of the American intellectual. Catapulted to fame as director of the Los Alamos atomic weapons laboratory, Oppenheimer occupied a key position in the compact between science and the state that developed out of World War II. By tracing the making - and unmaking - of Oppenheimer's wartime and postwar scientific identity, Charles Thorpe illustrates the struggles over the role of the scientist in relation to nuclear weapons, the state, and culture.A stylish intellectual biography, Oppenheimer maps out changes in the roles of scientists and intellectuals in twentieth-century America, ultimately revealing transformations in Oppenheimer's persona that coincided with changing attitudes toward science in society.


Manhattan Project - 2852493885

35,01 zł

Manhattan Project Icon Books Ltd

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

'I am become death, destroyer of worlds.' Robert J. Oppenheimer Established in 1942 at the height of the Second World War, the Manhattan Project was a dramatic quest to beat the Nazis to a deadly goal: the atomic bomb. At Los Alamos and several other sites, American, British, Canadian and refugee European scientists, together with engineers, technicians and many other workers, laboured to design and build nuclear weapons. With their huge experiments, complex organisations and lavish funding, these institutes represented a new form of scientific organisation: 'Big Science'. Their efforts produced 'Little Boy' and 'Fat Man', the bombs that ultimately destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. In The Manhattan Project, Jeff Hughes offers a lively reinterpretation of the key elements in the history and mythology of twentieth-century science.


Red Mercury Blues - 2850284384

29,80 zł

Red Mercury Blues FABER & FABER

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

An ex-KGB general has been killed on a live TV show in New York. Artie Cohen, a Russian American Jew and a special detective with the New York Police Department, unravels a Russian plot to acquire the infamous "red mercury" - a vital ingredient in the making of nuclear weapons.


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