krainaksiazek american scientists and nuclear weapons policy 20106957

- znaleziono 11 produktów w 2 sklepach

Nuclear Weapons, Scientists, And The Post - Cold War Challenge - 2840043264

269,99 zł

Nuclear Weapons, Scientists, And The Post - Cold War Challenge

Książki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Society & social sciences>Politics & government>International relations>Arms negotiation & control

Includes A Representative Selection Of The Author's Writings And Speeches On Public Policy Issues With Substantial Scientific Components. This Book Contains Writings That Deal With National Security, Nuclear Weapons, And Arms Control And Reflect The Author's Personal Involvement In Such Issues Dating Back To 1960.


Absolute and relative gains in the American decision to release nuclear weapons over Hiroshima and Nagasaki - 2840813784

257,72 zł

Absolute and relative gains in the American decision to release nuclear weapons over Hiroshima and Nagasaki GRIN Verlag

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Master's Thesis from the year 2014 in the subject Politics - International Politics - General and Theories, grade: 80/100, University of Leicester (Department of Politics and International Relations), course: International Relations, language: English, abstract: The question of whether states pursue absolute or relative gains in international politics has divided neo-realism and neo-liberalism for quite some time now. Thus whereas neo-realists contend that states seek comparative advantages relative to other actors, neo-liberal scholars argue that they are primarily interested in the accomplishment of absolute individual gains. In applying social-constructivist ideas, however, this paper will attempt to demonstrate that such a preference for relative or absolute gains is not naturally predetermined, but inextricably linked to the continual 're-construction' of states' national identities and interests. In other words, it is political actors' own conception and definition of international relations which ultimately determines their concern for absolute or relative gains.§By analyzing the decision-making process of the Truman Administration for using nuclear weapons against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, this case study will show that American leaders were altogether much more preoccupied with achieving absolute rather than relative gains. Such absolute considerations were simultaneously influenced by the pressures of an anarchic self-help system as well as by specific domestic imperatives and the personal views of individual policy-makers on how to best handle international problems and exigencies. More concretely, American decision-makers believed that only the realization of absolute gains such as swift socio-economic recovery and the creation of a more stable and peaceful security environment would ultimately ensure their country's long-term international position in both absolute and relative terms.


Breaking the Nuclear Impasse - 2826957001

65,74 zł

Breaking the Nuclear Impasse The Century Foundation

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Curbing nuclear weapons has never been a more urgent priority for nations both great and small, but the global system of nuclear controls seems paralyzed. Have the instruments that once worked so well lost their efficacy? What can be done to clear the obstructions and break this impasse? In this volume, some of the world's most recognized thinkers on nuclear issues take on these questions. Can the market be harnessed as an early warning system for identifying risky nuclear behavior? Is an international fuel bank a solution against nuclear proliferation, or a Trojan horse opening the door to it? What hidden roadblocks might derail the India/U.S. nuclear deal? Is the era of arms control over, or will the new proliferation threats help nuclear disarmament find a place on the policy table?Readers who are new to the field, and those who are steeped in it, will find penetrating insights into today's nuclear challenges - and a glimpse of the road ahead. The contributors to the volume include: Hans Blix, chairman of the Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission; Christopher F. Chyba, professor of astrophysical sciences and international affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University; Joseph Cirincione, senior fellow and director for nuclear policy at the Center for American Progress; Jayantha Dhanapala, former UN under-secretary-general for disarmament affairs from 1998 to 2003 and the president of the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference; Michael Krepon, cofounder of the Henry L. Stimson Center; William C. Potter, director of the Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies; and, Henry D. Sokolski, executive director of the Nonproliferation Policy Education Center.


The Nuclear Question - 2826825458

168,90 zł

The Nuclear Question Cambridge University Press

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Originally published in 1979, this book is a history of American nuclear weapons policy that tells how the United States learned to live with the bomb. Little of what has been written about nuclear weapons is historical. Most people concerned with the problems of nuclear armaments have asked 'what is to be done?' rather than 'what has happened and why?' But The Nuclear Question is more than a chronology. It offers original and provocative arguments about the development of military strategy and arms limitations with the Soviet Union, and focuses in particular on the Kennedy administration. During that period the innovations of Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara, the Cuban missile crisis, and the Limited Test Ban Treaty combined to establish the main lines of nuclear policy that the United States follows today. This book will have great appeal to specialists who follow the technical developments of armaments and the political responses to those developments and to the general reader who does not feel at home in discussions of throw-weights, cruise missiles and MIRVs. Written in a clear, readable style, The Nuclear Question will be a valuable book for anyone who wishes to understand better the nuclear issues of our time.


Iran's Nuclear Motivations - 2840801831

192,45 zł

Iran's Nuclear Motivations LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

The notion of this book stems from an academic thesis submitted to the School of Global Affairs and Public Policy at the American University in Cairo (AUC) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Global Affairs, in December 2013. The goal of study was to explore the motivations that Iran may have for pursuing a nuclear weapons program. This project treats its pursuit as a hypothesis built on concerns elevated by the IAEA that Iran's nuclear program might have a military dimension. There have been debates over the reasons behind Iran s insistence on pursuing a policy of nuclear ambiguity despite its status as a party to the NPT, the durability that makes Iran bears the considerable amount of international sanctions without giving up its policy, and Iran s prowess in negotiating with P5+1 in over its nuclear policy without reaching any tangible consequences. Analysts and commentators believe that there are two major perceptions may inspire Iran to develop a nuclear weapon namely the deterrence against potential threats, and the goals of the Islamic revolution.


Churchill's Bomb - 2837122191

124,32 zł

Churchill's Bomb FABER & FABER

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Churchill's Bomb reveals a new aspect of the great Prime Minister's life, so far completely neglected by historians: his relations with his nuclear scientists, and his management of Britain's policy on atomic weapons. Graham Farmelo, the author of the celebrated and prize-winning biography of Paul Dirac, argues that Churchill was far more interested in science that he appeared. He made brave efforts to understand the exciting and sinister new world opened up by quantum physics in the 1920s and 30s, and wrote repeatedly about the coming of unimaginably dangerous new explosives. Britain then was the world leader in nuclear research. But when the awful possibility of actually building an atomic bomb raised its head, Churchill made crucial errors that ensured Britain's exclusion from the American-led project to build the bomb. He neglected an offer by Roosevelt to give Britain equal footing on the project and marginalized the real elite of British science, relying instead on the counsel of Frederick Lindemann, a wayward Oxford physicist hungry for power and resentful of scientists more brilliant than he was. As a result, Britain lost its leadership of this cutting-edge science and was denied access to the latest research. Churchill allowed himself to be fobbed off with emollient words from the notoriously evasive American President. In this original and controversial book, Graham Farmelo shows a new and less flattering side to the great war leader.


Wrong Hands - 2826693275

104,58 zł

Wrong Hands Oxford University Press

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

In 1885, there was The Science of Revolutionary Warfare. In 1971, there was The Anarchist Cookbook. In 2012, the Boston Marathon bombers turned to the Internet to learn how to make explosives. For well over a century, the United States government has regarded the circulation of weapons manuals and instruction booklets by radicals as not only dangerous, but criminal. In The Wrong Hands, Ann Larabee traces the nuanced history of do-it-yourself weapons manuals from the late nineteenth century to the present to explain the trajectory of violent radicalism and how it provokes the state's evolving policy toward radical dissent. Larabee begins with Johann Most's TheScience of Revolutionary Warfare, which allegedly served as a cookbook for the accused Haymarket Square bombers of 1886. The judge at the Haymarket trial allowed it to be admitted as evidence, setting a precedent for prosecutorial use of such texts against radicals. Health Is in You!, a bombmaking guide circulated by Italian anarchists, further attracted the attention of federal police, and sabotage books were introduced in show trials of labor activists. In the 1960s, small paramilitary publishers produced instructions, largely drawn from US military sources, to cater to a growing popular interest in do-it-yourself weapons making. Published in 1971, The Anarchist Cookbook achieved legendary status and a lasting presence in the courts. The book's critics immediately connected it to the wave of bombings by left-wing radicals of the era, particularly the Weather Underground. Novelistic instructions for bombmaking, as in Edward Abbey's The Monkey Wrench Gang and William Pierce's The Turner Diaries, provided controversial evidence in prosecutions of radicals on the left and right, including Earth Firsters and Timothy McVeigh. Over the last twenty years, sites have proliferated online explaining how to make weapons, including suicide vests, and older print instructions have been digitized. The struggle over the state's responsibility to police such information has long hinged on whether its disseminators are legitimate. An unevenly applied federal terror policy has increased the penalties for possessing popular weapons instructions if those instructions end up in "the wrong hands" like right-wing militia figures and jihadists (including the Boston Marathon bombers). Larabee ends with an analysis of the 1979 publication of instructions to make a nuclear weapon, which raises the ultimate question: can a society committed to free speech allow these sorts of manuals to disseminate freely? A comprehensive account of an alarming yet persistent historical phenomenon, The Wrong Hands will reshape our understanding of radical violence and state repression in American history.


Britannica - Iran - 2834158745

58,42 zł

Britannica - Iran Turner Publishing Company

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

On June 24, 2005, after nearly ten years of supporting liberal reform, the people of Iran surprised the world by electing the conservative mayor of Tehran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, as their new president. Soon after, the new president announced Iran would restart its uranium enrichment program, drawing international criticism and condemnation from leaders in Europe and the United States. Many observers suspect it is the desire to produce not nuclear energy but nuclear weapons that lies behind Iran's controversial decision. Ever since President George W. Bush described Iran, Iraq, and North Korea as the "Axis of Evil," Iran has garnered increased international attention and threatens to become the new focus of European and American foreign policy. Now you can have at your fingertips up-to-date, must-know details on this complex, pivotal country-straight from one of the most trusted sources of information around the globe. The first in a major new series from Encyclopedia Britannica, Iran presents a balanced, sophisticated examination of Iran's social, cultural, and political landscape, past and present. From the constitutional revolution to the hostage crisis to weapons of mass destruction, this thorough guide provides the necessary background to comprehend all the important, ongoing issues surrounding this enigmatic country. Information on such leaders as Cyrus the Great and Nobel Peace Prize winner Shirin Ebadi, as well as on historical events like the Iran-Contra Affair and the Iran-Iraq War, place current developments into the broader context of world history, the Muslim world, the War on Terror, and the push for democratic reform in the Middle East. Every concise entry-from Afghanistan and Ayatollah Khomeini to Shari'ah law and the Shah-promotes the deeper understanding of issues and events that only Encyclopedia Britannica can provide. Since 1768, Encyclopedia Britannica has been a leading provider of learning products and one of the world's most trusted sources of information.


Iron Curtains on Paper - The Origins of the Cold War 1917 - 1947 - 2826630223

173,19 zł

Iron Curtains on Paper - The Origins of the Cold War 1917 - 1947 GRIN Verlag

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Thesis (M.A.) from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: USA, grade: 1,3, University of Leipzig (Institut für Amerikanistik), course: US Foreign Policy, language: English, abstract: (...)As a first step, this paper is to investigate different approaches historians have offered in the course of time. Chapter 2 starts off with a summary of the main waves of Cold War historiography (...) Chapters 3 to 7 are to study the most predominant perspectives and factors presented in chapter 2 in an attempt to show why some debates are very useful, some unnecessary, and some hardly solvable due to a lack of evidence. At the same time, this paper attempts to offer a good overview of main events shaping European and American history between 1917 and 1947.The third chapter is to explore the roots of the communist experiment in the Soviet Union (...) to find out in how far the two decades preceding the Cold War can add to understand its outcome. In 1941, relations between the U.S. and S.U. took a completely new shape when both decided to come together to fight Nazi-Germany and Japan. The Great Alliance set out to save the world from fascism (...). Chapter 4 will mainly focus on the conflicts that arose during the war to, again, find out in how far they shaped the onset of the Cold War.Although the emergence of the atomic bomb and diplomatic decisions surrounding it (in particular the fact that Russia was only informed about it in Potsdam) place it in one line with war-time conflicts outlined in the previous chapter, it seems to deserve an extra section, since the development of nuclear weapons ultimately changed the cause of warfare and thus, the course and outcome of the Cold War itself. Furthermore, the level of violence the nuclear attacks on Japan reached raises serious questions about the very necessity of employing such a weapon. The debate studied is polarized between those defending the use of the bombs and those blaming the Truman government (...) . Within two years after the war s ending, the great alliance quickly crumbled. Soon, hostility replaced cooperation and the old discrepancy between capitalism and communism regained predominance in contemporary rhetoric. Chapter 6 will not only outline the events leading to the breakdown of the alliance but also explore the questions whether there was the intention to keep the alliance alive at all and if so how this change of attitude came into being.Finally, the last part will investigate the first major political attack the United States launched against the Soviet Union - the Marshall Plan - which considerably impacted on the future distribution of power in Europe.


Power, Energy, and the New Russian Imperialism - 2826810240

312,64 zł

Power, Energy, and the New Russian Imperialism Praeger Security International

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Russia is the world's foremost energy superpower, rivaling Saudi Arabia as the world's largest oil producer and accounting for a quarter of the world's exports of natural gas. Russia's energy reserves account for half of the world's probable oil reserves and a third of the world's proven natural gas reserves. Whereas military might and nuclear weapons formed the core of Soviet cold war power, since 1991 the Russian state has viewed its monopolistic control of Russia's energy resources as the core of its power now and for the future. Since 2005, the international news has been filled with Russia's repeated demonstrations of its readiness to use price, transit fees, and supply of gas and oil exports as punitive policy instruments against recalcitrant states that were formerly part of the Soviet Union, striking in turn the Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, and Lithuania. Orban reveals for the first time in Power, Energy, and the New Russian Imperialism Russia's readiness to wield the same energy weapon against her neighbors on the west, all of them former Soviet satellite states but now EU and NATO member nations: the three Baltic nations and the five East European nations of Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovenia. Orban shows how the Kremlin since 1991 has systematically used Russian energy companies as players in a concerted neo-mercantilist, energy-based foreign policy designed to further Russia's neo-imperial ambitions among America's key allies in Central East Europe. Her unprecedented analysis is key to predicting Russia's strategic response to American negotiations with Poland and the Czech Republic to host the US missile shield. She also reveals the economic and diplomatic modus operandi by which Russia will increasingly apply its energy clout to shape and coerce the foreign policies of the West European members of the EU, as Russia's contribution to EU gas consumption increases from a quarter today to three-quarters by 2020. Orban proves that Russia's neo-mercantilist energy strategy in East Europe is not at all dependent on the person of Putin, but began under Yeltsin and continues under Medvedev, the former chairman of Gazprom.


Manhattan Project - 2826926181

34,70 zł

Manhattan Project Icon Books Ltd

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

'I am become death, destroyer of worlds.' Robert J. Oppenheimer Established in 1942 at the height of the Second World War, the Manhattan Project was a dramatic quest to beat the Nazis to a deadly goal: the atomic bomb. At Los Alamos and several other sites, American, British, Canadian and refugee European scientists, together with engineers, technicians and many other workers, laboured to design and build nuclear weapons. With their huge experiments, complex organisations and lavish funding, these institutes represented a new form of scientific organisation: 'Big Science'. Their efforts produced 'Little Boy' and 'Fat Man', the bombs that ultimately destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. In The Manhattan Project, Jeff Hughes offers a lively reinterpretation of the key elements in the history and mythology of twentieth-century science.


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