krainaksiazek animals we all belong 20044758

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W. C. L. Martin - Cattle - 2862120181

138,61 zł

W. C. L. Martin - Cattle Read Books

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Cattle: Their History And Various Breeds; To Which Is Added The Dairy, By W.C.L. Martin. CHAPTER I. know the various orders of mammnlia, from which man has reclaimed and domesticated certain species- species, the possession of which, in a state of subjection and dependence, contribute essentially to his welfare-that of the Ruminatia, or ruminating animals, affords him the greatest number and those not of the lowest importance. To this order belong the camel, the llama and its allies, the different species of the ox, the sheep, and the goat. Since the remotest periods of history, the ox and the sheep have been regarded in the light of property nor is their intrest value less appreciated after a lapse of ages. Who does not know how intimately the wellbeing of a nation is connected with its agrarian produce, whether animal or vegetable and how closely the interests of commerce and of agriculture are inter-blended together 1 It has been said by same one, that he who makes two stalks of corn grow where osly one grew before, is a, benefactor of his couitry and by a parity of reasoning, he who improves the breeds of domestic cattle, feeds two on the land which before only supported one and he who devises superior modes of management with regard to the extension of their utility, also serves the interests of the community. On topics like these, however, me need not insist let us at once to our subject. The Ox, then, is one among the ruminating order of quadrupeds. All the animals of this order have certain characteristics in common, which distinctlymark the differences between them and the animals of all other orders. They have cloven hoofs and they are destitute of incisors, or cutting teeth, in the upper jaw. With regard to the hoof we may observe that. as in the horse, the terminal bone of the toe is incased with horn but the horse has only a single series of phalangal bones, the ruminants two and hence the expression-cloven. But besides these there me, in some groups, as the deer, an extralateral toe on each side, consisting of three minute phalaagal bones, supported by a small stylet. As in the horse, the canon-bone is single, but generally shows, more or less, by a longitudinal furrow, that in an early stage it consisted of two portions, first coalescing, and at length becoming ossified into one. With respect to the teeth, though there are no incisors in the upper jaw, the gum is hardened, forming a fibrous and elastic pad, fitted to sustain the pressure of the lower incisors, eight in number, the position of which is rather oblique than vertical. The molars are six in number on each side, above and below. Of these the first three are preceded by milk, or deciduous teeth the three posterior are originally permanent. Their surface is marlied by two pairs of crescentic ridges. h the lower jaw, their crescents have the convexity outwards in the upper jaw, the reverse. These crescents, as they wear down by use, show a centre of bone surrounded by a coat of enamel. In general, there are no canine teeth these exist, however, in the upper jaw of the camel, the llama, the male of the musk-deer, and cbevrotains, and the male of many true deer. The act of rumination, or chewing the cud, supposes rt peculiarly complicated structure of the stomach, to be more fully explained hereafter. We may, however, observe, that the four distinct cavities, or receptacles, are so arranged that the coarsely-ground herbage received into the first large cavity, or paunch, is thence gradually propelled into the second viz., the hood, or honey-comb, through a valvular communication....

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Pterosaurs - 2826656009

169,50 zł

Pterosaurs University Press Group Ltd

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

For 150 million years, the skies didn't belong to birds--they belonged to the pterosaurs. These flying reptiles, which include the pterodactyls, shared the world with the nonavian dinosaurs until their extinction 65 million years ago. Some pterosaurs, such as the giant azhdarchids, were the largest flying animals of all time, with wingspans exceeding thirty feet and standing heights comparable to modern giraffes. This richly illustrated book takes an unprecedented look at these astonishing creatures, presenting the latest findings on their anatomy, ecology, and extinction. Pterosaurs features some 200 stunning illustrations, including original paintings by Mark Witton and photos of rarely seen fossils. After decades of mystery, paleontologists have finally begun to understand how pterosaurs are related to other reptiles, how they functioned as living animals, and, despite dwarfing all other flying animals, how they managed to become airborne. Here you can explore the fossil evidence of pterosaur behavior and ecology, learn about the skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of pterosaurs, and consider the newest theories about their cryptic origins. This one-of-a-kind book covers the discovery history, paleobiogeography, anatomy, and behaviors of more than 130 species of pterosaur, and also discusses their demise at the end of the Mesozoic. The most comprehensive book on pterosaurs ever published Features some 200 illustrations, including original paintings by the author Covers every known species and major group of pterosaurs Describes pterosaur anatomy, ecology, behaviors, diversity, and more Encourages further study with 500 references to primary pterosaur literature

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Memoirs of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Vol. 7 - 2862414763

58,03 zł

Memoirs of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Vol. 7 Forgotten Books

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Excerpt from Memoirs of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Vol. 7: An Experimental Analysis of the Origin of Blood and Vascular Endothelium; The Origin of Blood and Vascular Endothelium in Embryos Without a Circulation of the Blood and in the Normal Embryo, Forty-Nine Figures; A Study of Wandering Mesenchymal Cells on Th The origin of blood presents an almost unique problem in embryology. First, on account of the fact that the initial blood anlage in many animals is contributed to by wandering cells. Second, owing to the establishment of an early flow or circulation of embryonic fluids before the blood corpuscles have arisen. Soon after the cells and corpuscles are formed they are swept into this circulating current and carried to all parts of the body. In this way the blood cells become associated and mixed with numerous other types of cells, and it is difficult, if not impossible, to establish their true relationship with their surroundings. For the above reasons one is often ready to believe that many of the even careful and long thought out contributions to the development of blood are, after all, largely a matter of the authors own interpretation rather than a record of the actual processes. The general current of opinion at the present time would seem to indicate that all blood cells arise from a mesenchymal type of cell. A number of very competent workers have described the change of this mesenchymal cell into a stem cell or mother cell. On one side from this mother cell are developed various leukocytes, which it is important to note always occur in an interstitial position, while on the other hand, this same general type of mother cell gives rise to other cells which later differentiate into typical erythroblasts, and finally erythrocytes which are always found to be located within the vessels. These so called indifferent mesenchymal cells probably, from the evidence contained in the literature, do form blood cells, but to the discriminating reader the evidence is not at all convincing that both white blood cells and red blood cells really arise from one common mother cell or common embryonic anlage. The possibility, and even probability, is certainly present that these so-called stem mother cells may in reality not all belong to one type, but are different and may already be destined to form either red cells or white cells. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Wild Flowers of Scotland (Classic Reprint) - 2862264376

62,77 zł

Wild Flowers of Scotland (Classic Reprint) Forgotten Books

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Excerpt from Wild Flowers of Scotland Less has been said in a pleasant way about the wild flowers than about the wild animals of Scotland. Yet our four-footed creatures are few, and their tale easily told. Our wild birds, too, have been sadly thinned out, with the exception of sea forms; and these belong to other coasts as well. Birds have wings, and can cross water. Whereas the many wild flowers are well-nigh untouched. Nor do they fly about from place to place, but remain pretty much where they have been all along. They are ours, in a sense in which other living things are not. Moreover, they are out of fellowship with the wild flowers of other lands. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Yoruba Legends - 2862243622

41,84 zł

Yoruba Legends Abela Publishing

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

NOTE: This book has been illustrated and published by the students of Edgbarrow School in Berkshire, England as a special project to raise funds for their Ghana Sponsorship campaign. DESCRIPTION: The Yoruba people are descendants from a variety of West African communities. They are united by Geography, History, Religion and most importantly their Language. Many years ago, before the advent of the West African slave trade, the Yoruba people inhabited an area which stretched, along the coast of West Africa, all the way inward and down to Angola in South West Africa. Today this is not the case. The legends and fairy stories in this book belong to the Yoruba. They relate the adventures of men and animals, and try to explain the mysteries of Nature-Why Women have Long Hair, How the Leopard got his Spots, the Three Magicians, the Boa-Constrictor, How the Elephant got his Trunk and more. These stories grew from the imagination of the people. We read these folk-tales for their quaintness and humour, for their sympathy with Nature, and because we find in them the ideas and ideals, not just of one man, but of a race of people. IN modern times we have begun paying close attention to folklore - old tales, not invented by one man, but belonging to the whole people; not written down, but told by parents to their children, and so handed on for hundreds of years. The legends express primitive notions of right and wrong. As a rule, the wicked are punished and the good rewarded; and that, we feel, is as it should be. We may weep at the death of rascally Tortoise, but we may also feel that he somehow has deserved his fate!

Sklep: Libristo.pl

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