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Using TRILL, FabricPath, and VXLAN Designing Massively Scalable Data Centers with Overlays TRILL, FabricPath, and VXLAN overlays help you distribute data traffic far more effectively, dramatically improving utilization in even the largest data center networks. Using TRILL, FabricPath, and VXLAN is the first practical and comprehensive guide to planning and establishing these high-efficiency overlay networks. The authors begin by reviewing today's fast-growing data center requirements, and making a strong case for overlays in the Massive Scale Data Center (MSDC). Next, they introduce each leading technology option, including FabricPath, TRILL, LISP, VXLAN, NVGRE, OTV, and Shortest Path Bridging (SPB). They also present a chapter-length introduction to IS-IS, focusing on details relevant to the control of FabricPath and TRILL networks. Building on this foundation, they offer in-depth coverage of FabricPath: its advantages, architecture, forwarding, configuration, verification, and benefits in Layer-2 networks. Through examples, they explain TRILL's architecture, functionality, and forwarding behavior, focusing especially on data flow. They also fully address VXLAN as a solution for realizing IP-based data center fabrics, including multi-tenant cloud applications. Using TRILL, FabricPath, and VXLAN provides detailed strategies and methodologies for FabricPath, TRILL, and VXLAN deployment and migration, as well as best practices for management and troubleshooting. It also presents three detailed implementation scenarios, each reflecting realistic data center challenges. In particular, the authors show how to integrate multiple overlay technologies into a single end-to-end solution that offers exceptional flexibility, agility, and availability. Sanjay K. Hooda is principal engineer in Catalyst switching software engineering at Cisco. He has more than 15 years of network design and implementation experience in large enterprise environments, and has participated in IETF standards activities. His interests include wireless, multicast, TRILL, FabricPath, High Availability, ISSU, and IPv6. He is co-author of IPv6 for Enterprise Networks. Shyam Kapadia, Technical Leader at Cisco's Data Center Group (DCG), was an integral part of the team that delivered the next-generation Catalyst 6500 Sup 2T (2 Terabyte) platform. Since then, he has focused on developing new solutions for data center environments. He holds a Ph.D. in computer science from USC, where his research encompassed wired, wireless, ad hoc, vehicular, and sensor networks. Padmanabhan Krishnan has more than 12 years of experience in networking and telecommunications, including 7 at Cisco. His recent experience has included providing data path solutions for TRILL in the Catalyst 6500 Sup 2T Platform using FPGA, as well as design and development of platform core infrastructure and L2 features. n Discover how overlays can address data center network problems ranging from scalability to rapid provisioning n Examine popular data center overlay examples n Learn about extensions to IS-IS for TRILL and FabricPath n Use FabricPath, TRILL, and VXLAN to simplify configuration, improve performance and availability, optimize efficiency, and limit table size n Learn about FabricPath control and data plane architecture details n Review example FabricPath configurations on Cisco Nexus 7000/6000/5000 switches n Understand TRILL concepts and architecture, including overlay header, control and data plane, and MAC address learning n Learn about VXLAN architecture details and packet forwarding n Review example VXLAN configurations on a Cisco Nexus 1000V distributed virtual switch n Implement TRILL/FabricPath networks with VXLAN to virtualized servers in an intra-data center environment n Connect multiple traditional data centers using an OTV overlay as a Layer 2 extension n Use OTV overlays to connect sites running FabricPath, TRILL, or both
Topological Graph Theory Dover Publications
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1. Introduction 1.1 Representation of Graphs 1.1.1 Drawings 1.1.2 Incidence Matrix 1.1.3 Euler's theorem on valence sum 1.1.4 Adjacency Matrix 1.1.5 Directions 1.1.6 Graphs, maps, isomorphisms 1.1.7 Automorphisms 1.1.8 Exercises 1.2 Some important classes of graphs 1.2.1 Walks, paths, and cycles; connectedness 1.2.2 Trees 1.2.3 Complete graphs 1.2.4 Cayley graphs 1.2.5 Bipartite graphs 1.2.6 Bouquets of Circles 1.2.7 Exercises 1.3 New graphs from old 1.3.1 Subgraphs 1.3.2 Topological representations, subdivisions, graph homeomorphisms 1.3.3 Cartesian products 1.3.4 Edge-complements 1.3.5 Suspensions 1.3.6 Amalgamations 1.3.7 Regular quotients 1.3.8 Regular coverings 1.3.9 Exercises 1.4 Surfaces and imbeddings 1.4.1 Orientable surfaces 1.4.2 Nonorientable surfaces 1.4.3 Imbeddings 1.4.4 Euler's equation for the sphere 1.4.5 Kuratowski's graphs 1.4.6 Genus of surfaces and graphs 1.4.7 The torus 1.4.8 Duality 1.4.9 Exercises 1.5 More graph-theoretic background 1.5.1 Traversability 1.5.2 Factors 1.5.3 Distance, neighborhoods 1.5.4 Graphs colorings and map colorings 1.5.5 Edge operations 1.5.6 Algorithms 1.5.7 Connectivity 1.5.8 Exercises 1.6 Planarity 1.6.1 A nearly complete sketch of the proof 1.6.2 Connectivity and region boundaries 1.6.3 Edge contraction and connectivity 1.6.4 Planarity theorems for 3-connected graphs 1.6.5 Graphs that are not 3-connected 1.6.6 Algorithms 1.6.7 Kuratowski graphs for higher genus 1.6.8 Other planarity criteria 1.6.9 Exercises 2. Voltage Graphs and Covering Spaces 2.1 Ordinary voltages 2.1.1 Drawings of voltage graphs 2.1.2 Fibers and the natural projection 2.1.3 The net voltage on a walk 2.1.4 Unique walk lifting 2.1.5 Preimages of cycles 2.1.6 Exercises 2.2 Which graphs are derivable with ordinary voltages? 2.2.1 The natural action of the voltage group 2.2.2 Fixed-point free automorphisms 2.2.3 Cayley graphs revisited 2.2.4 Automorphism groups of graphs 2.2.5 Exercises 2.3 Irregular covering graphs 2.3.1 Schreier graphs 2.3.2 Relative voltages 2.3.3 Combinatorial coverings 2.3.4 Most regular graphs are Schreier graphs 2.3.5 Exercises 2.4 Permutation voltage graphs 2.4.1 Constructing covering spaces with permutations 2.4.2 Preimages of walks and cycles 2.4.3 Which graphs are derivable by permutation voltages? 2.4.4 Identifying relative voltages with permutation voltages 2.4.5 Exercises 2.5 Subgroups of the voltage group 2.5.1 The fundamental semigroup of closed walks 2.5.2 Counting components of ordinary derived graphs 2.5.3 The fundamental group of a graph 2.5.4 Contracting derived graphs onto Cayley graphs 2.5.5 Exercises 3. Surfaces and Graph Imbeddings 3.1 Surfaces and simplicial complexes 3.1.1 Geometric simplicial complexes 3.1.2 Abstract simplicial complexes 3.1.3 Triangulations 3.1.4 Cellular imbeddings 3.1.5 Representing surfaces by polygons 3.1.6 Pseudosurfaces and block designs 3.1.7 Orientations 3.1.8 Stars, links, and local properties 3.1.9 Exercises 3.2 Band Decompositions and graph imbeddings 3.2.1 Band decomposition for surfaces 3.2.2 Orientability 3.2.3 Rotation systems 3.2.4 Pure rotation systems and orientable surfaces 3.2.5 Drawings of rotation systems 3.2.6 Tracing faces 3.2.7 Duality 3.2.8 Which 2-complexes are planar? 3.2.9 Exercises 3.3 The classification of surfaces 3.3.1 Euler characteristic relative to an imbedded graph 3.3.2 Invariance of Euler characteristic 3.3.3 Edge-deletion surgery and edge sliding 3.3.4 Completeness of the set of orientable models 3.3.5 Completeness of the set of nonorientable models 3.3.6 Exercises 3.4 The imbedding distribution of a graph 3.4.1 The absence of gaps in the genus range 3.4.2 The absence of gaps in the crosscap range 3.4.3 A genus-related upper bound on the crosscap number 3.4.4 The genus and crosscap number of the complete graph K subscript 7 3.4.5 Some graphs of crosscap number 1 but arbitrarily large genus 3.4.6 Maximum genus 3.4.7 Distribution of genus and face sizes 3.4.8 Exercises 3.5 Algorithms and formulas for minimum imbeddings 3.5.1 Rotation-system algorithms 3.5.2 Genus of an amalgamation 3.5.3 Crosscap number of an amalgamation 3.5.4 The White-Pisanski imbedding of a cartesian product 3.5.5 Genus and crosscap number of cartesian products 3.5.6 Exercises 4. Imbedded voltage graphs and current graphs 4.1 The derived imbedding 4.1.1 Lifting rotation systems 4.1.2 Lifting faces 4.1.3 The Kirchhoff Voltage Law 4.1.4 Imbedded permutation voltage graphs 4.1.5 Orientability 4.1.6 An orientability test for derived surfaces 4.1.7 Exercises 4.2 Branched coverings of surfaces 4.2.1 Riemann surfaces 4.2.2 Extension of the natural covering projection 4.2.3 Which branch coverings come from voltage graphs? 4.2.4 The Riemann-Hurwitz equation 4.2.5 Alexander's theorem 4.2.6 Exercises 4.3 Regular branched coverings and group actions 4.3.1 Groups acting on surfaces 4.3.2 Graph automorphisms and rotation systems 4.3.3 Regular branched coverings and ordinary imbedded voltage graphs 4.3.4 Which regular branched coverings come from voltage graphs? 4.3.5 Applications to group actions on the surface S subscript 2 4.3.6 Exercises 4.4 Current graphs 4.4.1 Ringel's generating rows for Heffter's schemes 4.4.2 Gustin's combinatorial current graphs 4.4.3 Orientable topological current graphs 4.4.4 Faces of the derived graph 4.4.5 Nonorientable current graphs 4.4.6 Exercises 4.5 Voltage-current duality 4.5.1 Dual directions 4.5.2 The voltage graph dual to a current graph 4.5.3 The dual derived graph 4.5.4 The genus of the complete bipartite graph K (subscript m, n) 4.5.5 Exercises 5. Map colorings 5.1 The Heawood upper bound 5.1.1 Average valence 5.1.2 Chromatically critical graphs 5.1.3 The five-color theorem 5.1.4 The complete-graph imbedding problem 5.1.5 Triangulations of surfaces by complete graphs 5.1.6 Exercises 5.2 Quotients of complete-graph imbeddings and some variations 5.2.1 A base imbedding for orientable case 7 5.2.2 Using a coil to assign voltages 5.2.3 A current-graph perspective on case 7 5.2.4 Orientable case 4: doubling 1-factors 5.2.5 About orientable cases 3 and 0 5.2.6 Exercises 5.3 The regular nonorientable cases 5.3.1 Some additional tactics 5.3.2 Nonorientable current graphs 5.3.3 Nonorientable cases 3 and 7 5.3.4 Nonorientable case 0 5.3.5 Nonorientable case 4 5.3.6 About nonorientable cases 1, 6, 9, and 10 5.3.7 Exercises 5.4 Additional adjacencis for irregular cases 5.4.1 Orientable case 5 5.4.2 Orie 6.1.1 Recovering a Cayley graph from any of its quotients 6.1.2 A lower bound for the genus of most abelian groups 6.1.3 Constructing quadrilateral imbeddings for most abelian groups 6.1.4 Exercises 6.2 The symmetric genus 6.2.1 Rotation systems and symmetry 6.2.2 Reflections 6.2.3 Quotient group actions on quotient surfaces 6.2.4 Alternative Cayley graphs revisited 6.2.5 Group actions and imbeddings 6.2.6 Are genus and symmetric genus the same? 6.2.7 Euclidean space groups and the torus 6.2.8 Triangle groups 6.2.9 Exercises 6.3 Groups of small symmetric genus 6.3.1 The Riemann-Hurwitz equation revisited 6.3.2 Strong symmetric genus 0 6.3.3 Symmetric genus 1 6.3.4 The geometry and algebra of groups of symmetric genus 1 6.3.5 Hurwitz's theorem 6.3.6 Exercises 6.4 Groups of small genus 6.4.1 An example 6.4.2 A face-size inequality 6.4.3 Statement of main theorem 6.4.4 Proof of theorem 6.4.2: valence d = 4 6.4.5 Proof of theorem 6.4.2: valence d = 3 6.4.6 Remarks about Theorem 6.4.2 6.4.7 Exercises References Bibliography Supplementary Bibliography Table of Notations Subject Index
Peptide Analysis Protocols Springer, Berlin
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As the technology base for the preparation of increasingly c- plex peptides has improved, the methods for their purification and ana- sis have also been improved and supplemented. Peptide science routinely utilizes tools and techniques that are common to organic chemistry, p- tein chemistry, biophysical chemistry, enzymology, pharmacology, and molecular biology. A fundamental understanding of each of these areas is essential for interpreting all of the data that a peptide scientist may see. The purpose of Peptide Analysis Protocols is to provide the novice with sufficient practical information necessary to begin developing useful analysis and separation skills. Understanding and developing these skills will ultimately yield a scientist with broadened knowledge and good problem-solving abilities. Although numerous books that address d- ferent specialties, such as HPLC, FAB-MS, CE, and NMR, have been written, until now no single volume has reviewed all of these techniques with a focus on "getting started" in separation and analysis of peptides. This volume will also provide those who already possess practical knowledge of the more advanced aspects of peptide science with detailed applications for each of these protocols. Because the chapters have been written by researchers active in each of the fields that they discuss, a great deal of information on and insight into solution of real problems that they have encountered is presented. Examplary results are clearly demonstrated and discussed. For more advanced investi- tions, supplementary experiments are often suggested.
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Exceptional Cooling, Significant Quiet Introducing the next generation of be quiet!
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Sams Teach Yourself SQL in 10 Minutes, Fourth Edition New full-color code examples help you see how SQL statements are structured Whether you're an application developer, database administrator, web application designer, mobile app developer, or Microsoft Office users, a good working knowledge of SQL is an important part of interacting with databases. And Sams Teach Yourself SQL in 10 Minutes offers the straightforward, practical answers you need to help you do your job. Expert trainer and popular author Ben Forta teaches you just the parts of SQL you need to know-starting with simple data retrieval and quickly going on to more complex topics including the use of joins, subqueries, stored procedures, cursors, triggers, and table constraints. You'll learn methodically, systematically, and simply-in 22 short, quick lessons that will each take only 10 minutes or less to complete. With the Fourth Edition of this worldwide bestseller, the book has been thoroughly updated, expanded, and improved. Lessons now cover the latest versions of IBM DB2, Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, SQLite, MariaDB, and Apache Open Office Base. And new full-color SQL code listings help the beginner clearly see the elements and structure of the language. 10 minutes is all you need to learn how to...* Use the major SQL statements * Construct complex SQL statements using multiple clauses and operators * Retrieve, sort, and format database contents * Pinpoint the data you need using a variety of filtering techniques * Use aggregate functions to summarize data * Join two or more related tables * Insert, update, and delete data * Create and alter database tables * Work with views, stored procedures, and moreTable of Contents 1 Understanding SQL 2 Retrieving Data 3 Sorting Retrieved Data 4 Filtering Data 5 Advanced Data Filtering 6 Using Wildcard Filtering 7 Creating Calculated Fields 8 Using Data Manipulation Functions 9 Summarizing Data 10 Grouping Data 11 Working with Subqueries 12 Joining Tables 13 Creating Advanced Joins 14 Combining Queries 15 Inserting Data 16 Updating and Deleting Data 17 Creating and Manipulating Tables 18 Using Views 19 Working with Stored Procedures 20 Managing Transaction Processing 21 Using Cursors 22 Understanding Advanced SQL Features Appendix A: Sample Table Scripts Appendix B: Working in Popular Applications Appendix C : SQL Statement Syntax Appendix D: Using SQL Datatypes Appendix E: SQL Reserved Words
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t1=0.058, t2=0, t3=0, t4=0.018, t=0.058