krainaksiazek being realistic about reasons 20052037
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Being Realistic About Reasons Oxford University Press
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
T. M. Scanlon offers a qualified defense of normative cognitivism-the view that there are irreducibly normative truths about reasons for action. He responds to three familiar objections: that such truths would have troubling metaphysical implications; that we would have no way of knowing what they are; and that the role of reasons in motivating and explaining action could not be explained if accepting a conclusion about reasons for action were a kind of belief. Scanlon answers the first of these objections within a general account of ontological commitment, applying to mathematics as well as normative judgments. He argues that the method of reflective equilibrium, properly understood, provides an adequate account of how we come to know both normative truths and mathematical truths, and that the idea of a rational agent explains the link between an agent's normative beliefs and his or her actions. Whether every statement about reasons for action has a determinate truth value is a question to be answered by an overall account of reasons for action, in normative terms. Since it seems unlikely that there is such an account, the defense of normative cognitivism offered here is qualified: statements about reasons for action can have determinate truth values, but it is not clear that all of them do. Along the way, Scanlon offers an interpretation of the distinction between normative and non-normative claims, a new account of the supervenience of the normative on the non-normative, an interpretation of the idea of the relative strength of reasons, and a defense of the method of reflective equilibrium.
Boot Camp bantam Books
Literatura dla młodzieży
Garrett Durrell does not like the situation in which we first find him ? he?s been flown and driven through the night with his hands cuffed behind his back, slowly going numb, with two escorts. You might think he had been kidnapped, but he knows, and we know because we?ve read the book title, that he?s off to boot camp.Oh dear, you might think, knowing nothing of this book ? a current issue book, through the eyes of a naughty little brat of a first-person narrator. But Garrett is not the usual boot camp inhabitant. He might have been wired before he went there, as on arrival he has a caffeine withdrawal headache, but he recognises this for what it is. This, then, is no hyperactive nasty, but possibly the smartest kid in any American boot camp.This is certainly not ITV documentary territory.Garrett is a mature fifteen year old ? large in physique and very intelligent. There are two reasons for his ending up in boot camp ? one I?ll let you discover as it is a breath of fresh air for teenage fiction, but the principal reason is that he simply fails to meet his competitive parents? society world, club-going life expectations.Garrett soon encounters the cruel and unusual punishments meted out to all the children in Lake Harmony, as this camp is called. He also notes the indemnifying contract quoted to let him know he has no rights at all. This raises the question in my mind of how realistic all that follows is, but the teenage reader will be less worried about this, I think, and instead greatly empathise with the inmates, as the emphasis on the parent always being right is drummed into them.
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