krainaksiazek black white cinema a short history 20126653

- znaleziono 32 produkty w 5 sklepach

Temperówka kum z pojemnikiem fluorescencyjna 210K Fish - 2846487509

3,10 zł

Temperówka kum z pojemnikiem fluorescencyjna 210K Fish

Książki & Multimedia > Książki

Nazwa - Temperówka kum z pojemnikiem fluorescencyjna 210K Fish Wydawca - KUM Kod ISBN - 4064900016314 Kod EAN - 4064900016314 Podatek VAT - 23%

Sklep: InBook.pl

Chromatic Cinema - 2826628950

584,35 zł

Chromatic Cinema Wiley-Blackwell (an imprint of John Wiley & Sons...

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Chromatic Cinema provides the first wide-ranging historical overview of screen color, exploring the changing uses and meanings of color in moving images, from hand painting in early skirt dance films to current trends in digital color manipulation. Offers both a history and a theory of screen color in the first full-length study ever published Provides an in-depth yet accessible account of color's spread through and ultimate effacement of black-and-white cinema, exploring the technological, cultural, economic, and artistic factors that have defined this evolving symbiosis Engages with film studies, art history, visual culture and technology studies in a truly interdisciplinary manner Includes 65 full-color illustrations of films ranging from Expressionist animation to Hollywood and Bollywood musicals, from the US 'indie' boom to1980s neo-noir, Hong Kong cinema, and recent comic-book films

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Oxford History of the Twentieth Century - 2826669937

235,55 zł

Oxford History of the Twentieth Century Oxford University Press

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Victoria still ruled over the British Empire, the imperial Manchu dynasty over China, and the Romanov Tsars over Russia. The cinema was in its infancy, with radio and television still to be developed. The earliest cars were on the road, but air travel was yet to come. Before antibiotics and effective vaccines against many common diseases, death rates were high. Over the course of the twentieth century, the human population of the world has tripled, space travel has left the realms of science fiction and become reality, two cataclysmic world wars and a host of other conflicts have been fought, the internal combustion engine has replaced the horse as the basic means of transport, computer technology has revolutionized communications. In this ambitious book, some of the most distinguished historians in the world survey the momentous events and the significant themes of recent and contemporary times, with a look forward to what the future might bring. They trace the continuities which have persisted over a hundred years and analyse the changes which have marked the century's progress.Early chapters take a global overview of the century as a whole, from a variety of perspectives -- demographic, scientific, economic, and cultural. Further chapters chart the century's course continent by continent and region by region, all written by acknowledged experts. Beautifully illustrated with both colour and black and white plates, and with a detailed chronology, suggestions for further reading, and a full index, The Oxford History of the Twentieth Century is a valuable repository of information, offering unparalleled insights into the century we live in.

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Presidents and Black America - 2844864678

593,85 zł

Presidents and Black America CQ Press

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

"Presidents and Black America: A Documentary History" is the first of its kind to document all of the Presidents and their complex relationships with African Americans, from the earliest days of the Republic through the start of the Obama administration. Scholars and students will be able to follow trends and contradictions in those relationships; such as acceptance and rejection of slavery, the struggle for political rights and economic opportunity, policies of tokenism, the rebuff to affirmative action, and the growth of black political power and influence. This reference will incorporate primary and secondary documents ranging from speeches, executive orders, statutes, and correspondence, to articles and editorials from contemporary African American and mainstream publications, political cartoons, and congressional debates. Many of the documents will contradict established opinions about individual Presidents. For example it is fairly widely-known that Andrew Johnson was an avowed white supremacist but less well-known that Woodrow Wilson tried to segregate previously-integrated government offices. Chapter introductions with historical data on the respective Presidents and short head notes place the documents in context.

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David Malin: Ancient Light: A Portrait of the Universe - 2822174785

149,00 zł

David Malin: Ancient Light: A Portrait of the Universe Wydawnictwo: Phaidon

WYDAWNICTWA ALBUMOWE > Fotografia > Tematyczna > Natura

ISBN: 9780714849324 Autor: Malin David     Rok wydania: 2009-04-01 Ilość stron: 128 Oprawa: twarda Format: 250 x 290 mm This book brings together the finest collection available of star clusters, galaxies, nebulae and other such spectacular phenomena caught on film. Each beautiful image, made from a series of delicate yet rich platinum prints, is accompanied by a clear and engaging caption. Malin's short texts (approximately 100 words) describe the depicted phenomena and some of the mythology surrounding them. The book is divided into nine sections, using the constellations as a framework to identify the positions of the images in the sky. Each section is introduced by a short text describing the featured constellations and a celestial map. In his introductory essay, Malin outlines the history and importance of photographing the night sky, describing how very long exposures taken with a telescope reveal stars and distant galaxies too faint to be seen by the eye. By studying galaxies, we learn about our origins and perhaps our destiny and, the origins of the ingredients of life and the destinies of stars like the Sun and the planets associated with them. Much of our current knowledge on these subjects was gleaned from black and white photographs like those in this book, which were originally taken for scientific purposes. Using the world's most sophisticated telescopes and his own revolutionary techniques, Malin brings us awe-inspiring images of distant worlds and amazing phenomena. He is a pioneer of space photography and has invented new ways of capturing the unseen universe on photographic plates, leading to the discovery of two new types of galaxies. His photographs capture light that has travelled immense distances, sometimes thousands of light years, to reach us.

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English progressive rock groups - 2847851141

220,50 zł

English progressive rock groups Books LLC, Reference Series

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Source: Wikipedia. Pages: 258. Chapters: Yes, Asia, Hawkwind, Genesis, Deep Purple, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, Marillion, King Crimson, Jethro Tull, Camel, Nirvana, The Moody Blues, Traffic, The Nice, Uriah Heep, Pink Floyd, Porcupine Tree, Muse, Gentle Giant, Oceansize, It Bites, Renaissance, Strawbs, Soft Machine, The Monsoon Bassoon, Twelfth Night, Procol Harum, Levitation, Family, Supertramp, Enochian Theory, No-Man, Atomic Rooster, Van der Graaf Generator, After the Fire, Pure Reason Revolution, Motion Theory, 64 Spoons, Barclay James Harvest, The Syn, Sleepy People, Gracious!, Mansun, If, Curved Air, Big Big Train, Caravan, Frost*, The Misunderstood, Amazing Blondel, The Enid, Edgar Broughton Band, 801, Mostly Autumn, The Tangent, Nektar, Audience, IQ, UK, First Signs of Frost, Touchstone, Flash, Tinyfish, Centipede, The Resonance Association, This Heat, Black Widow, Exit Ten, Pendragon, Babe Ruth, Hatfield and the North, Colosseum, Quintessence, Be-Bop Deluxe, *shels, The Deviants, Gryphon, GTR, Zag and the Coloured Beads, Cressida, Comus, Uriel, Failsafe, Ark, Continuum, Quasar, Armageddon, Egg, High Tide, Anderson Bruford Wakeman Howe, Mirage, Circulus, Arena, Matching Mole, The Yellow Moon Band, Haken, Illusion, Wally, Morgan, Rare Bird, Emerson, Lake & Powell, Warhorse, Devil Sold His Soul, Spirogyra, XYZ, GPS, 3, Nightwing, Mugstar, Greenslade, The Sea Nymphs, Delivery, Quiet Sun, Primitive Instinct, Jadis, Galahad, Quatermass, Henry Fool, Shadowland, Mr. So & So, Spring, Mogul Thrash, Still Life, Saturnalia, Jackson Heights, Mermaid Kiss, Pete Brown & Piblokto!, T2, Khan, Badger, National Health, Catapilla, Cinema, UKZ, Ibex, Brainville, May Blitz, Gravy Train, The Wilde Flowers, Haze, Keats, Cochise, Kino, Spratleys Japs, Mosque, Warm Dust, Druid, Marsupilami, Refugee, Fields, White, Indian Summer, Seventh Wave, MT-TV, Spontaneous Combustion, Igginbottom. Excerpt: King Crimson are a rock band founded in London, England in 1969. Often categorised as a foundational progressive rock group, the band have incorporated diverse influences and instrumentation during their history (including jazz and folk music, classical and experimental music, psychedelic rock, hard rock and heavy metal, new wave, gamelan, electronica and drum and bass). The band have been influential on many contemporary musical artists, and have gained a large cult following despite garnering little radio or music video airplay. Though originating in England, the band have had a mixture of English and American personnel since 1981. The band's lineup (centered on guitarist Robert Fripp) has persistently altered throughout their existence, with eighteen musicians and two lyricists passing through the ranks; though a greater degree of stability was achieved later in their history, with Adrian Belew having been a consistent member since 1981 (excluding ProjeKcts). The debut lineup of the band was influential, but short-lived, lasting for just over one year. Between 1970 and 1971, King Crimson were an unstable band, with many personnel changes and disjunctions between studio and live sound as the band explored elements of jazz, funk and classical chamber music. By 1972 the band had a more stable lineup and developed an improvisational sound mingling hard rock, contemporary classical music, free jazz and jazz-fusion before breaking up in 1974. The band re-formed with a new line-up in 1981 for three years (this time influenced by New Wave and gamelan music) before breaki...

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Natasha's Dance - 2212836413

54,10 zł

Natasha's Dance Penguin

Powieści i opowiadania

Orlando Figes

Sklep: Albertus.pl

Shepherds and Butchers - Chris Marnewick - 2850341672

29,54 zł

Shepherds and Butchers - Chris Marnewick

Książki & Multimedia > Książki

Opis - South Africa, 1987. Apartheid. When Leon, a white 19-year-old prison guard working on death row commits an inexplicable act of violence, killing seven black men in a hail of bullets, the outcome of the trial - and the court"s sentence - seems a foregone conclusion. Hotshot lawyer John Weber (played by Steve Coogan) reluctantly takes on the seemingly unwinnable case. A passionate opponent of the death penalty, John discovers that young Leon worked on death row in the nation"s most notorious prison, under traumatic conditions: befriending the inmates over the years while having to assist with their eventual execution. As the court hearings progress, the case offers John the opportunity to put the entire system of legally sanctioned murder on trial. How can one man take such a dual role of friend and executioner, becoming both shepherd and butcher? Inspired by true events, this is the story that puts the death penalty on trial and changes history. Nazwa - Shepherds and Butchers Autor - Chris Marnewick Oprawa - Miękka Wydawca - Arrow Kod ISBN - 9781784753436 Kod EAN - 9781784753436 Rok wydania - 2017 Język - angielski Format - 13.0x19.0cm Ilość stron - 480 Podatek VAT - 5%

Sklep: InBook.pl

Flickering Shadows - 2835281426

164,42 zł

Flickering Shadows Ohio University Monographs in International...

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Every European power in Africa made motion pictures for its subjects, but no state invested as heavily in these films, and expected as much from them, as the British colony of Southern Rhodesia. This volume explores the little-known world of colonial cinema. J.M. Burns pieces together the history of the cinema in Rhodesia, examining film production, audience reception and state censorship, to reconstruct the story of how Africans in one nation became consumers of motion pictures. Movies were a valued "tool of empire" designed to assimilate Africans into a new colonial order. Inspired by an inflated confidence in the medium, Rhodesian government officials created an African film industry that was unprecedented in its size and scope. Transforming the lives of their subjects through cinema proved to be more complicated than white officials had anticipated. Although Africans embraced the medium with enthusiasm, they expressed critical opinions and demonstrated decided tastes that left colonial officials puzzled and alarmed. This work tells the story of how motion pictures were introduced and negotiated in a colonial setting. In doing so, it casts light on the history of the globalization of the cinema. It is based on interviews with white and black filmmakers and African audience members, extensive archival research in Africa and England, and viewings of scores of colonial films.

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Iranian films (Film Guide) - 2837117542

97,42 zł

Iranian films (Film Guide) Books LLC, Reference Series

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Source: Wikipedia. Commentary (films not included). Pages: 72. Chapters: Maryam, Unruled Paper, Nader and Simin, A Separation, Be Like Others, The Day I Became a Woman, Taste of Cherry, Khastegi, Santouri, Children of Heaven, Offside, Heaven's Taxi, Crimson Gold, About Elly, The Night Bus, Baran, Noora, Turtles Can Fly, Marmoulak, Two Women, Dame sobh, The Wind Will Carry Us, The Circle, No One Knows About Persian Cats, Ekhrajiha, Secret Ballot, Bab'Aziz, The White Balloon, The Color of Paradise, A Time for Drunken Horses, Kandahar, Life, and Nothing More..., Through the Olive Trees, Half Moon, Bashu, the Little Stranger, The Song of Sparrows, Please Do Not Disturb, A Moment of Innocence, Farewell Baghdad, Lor Girl, Blackboards, Duet, Hamoun, Saint Mary, Shirin, The Cow, The White Meadows, Iran Zendan, David & Layla, Marooned in Iraq, Ten, Tardid, At Five in the Afternoon, Daadshah, Fireworks Wednesday, Mehman-e Maman, Captain Khorshid, Baduk, Pedar, There Are Things You Don't Know, Colors of Memory, The World Intellectuals, Hokm, Leyli o Majnun, Letters in the Wind, Hello Cinema, American Fugitive: The Truth About Hassan, The Glass House, Abadan, The Mirror, Hajji Washington, In the Alleys of Love, Time of Love, Gabbeh, Bam 6.6, Dayere Zangi, Pari, The House Is Black, Qeysar, Football Under Cover, Where Is the Friend's Home?, Son of Maryam, Beyond Fitna, Strand, The Apple, The Hunter, A Man Called Brian, Once Upon a Time, Cinema, History of Cinema, One Night, Sara, Light & Quiet, Ganj-e Qarun, Smell of Camphor, Scent of Jasmine, Stray Dogs, Homeless, The Runner, Requiem of Snow, Tales of Kish, ABC Africa, Far from Home, Barefoot to Herat, Leila, The Bread and Alley, Close-Up, 10 on Ten, Duel, The Traveller, Ballad of Tara, The Willow Tree, Nations Cultures, Still Life, ...Va man dar khoshbakhti-e shirin be donya amadam!, The Bicyclist, Green Faces, Burnt Bodies, A Party in Hell, Snake Fang, 20 Fingers, Djomeh, Takam-Chi, Shangoul and Mangoul, Buddha Collapsed out of Shame, Men at Work, Nargess, To Stay Alive, The Invincible Six, Deep Breath, Two Solutions for One Problem, A Wedding Suit, Persepolis Men, Willow and Wind, The Rings, Breaktime, One Land, Five Nations, Café Transit, The Noon of the 10th Day, Boycott, The Report, Broken Spell, Actor, Playing with Death, Studying in the Modern World, The Experience, So Can I, First Case, Second Case, Religious Toolmaker, How to Make Use of Leisure Time: Painting, The Mandrake, A Few Days Later, Tehran: Another Side, A City Surrounded by Mountains, Tehran Has No More Pomegranates!, Culture and Scientific treasuries, Rang-ha, Tribute to the Teachers, The Textbooks, The Twelve Chairs, To Have or Not to Have, Tickets, Orderly or Disorderly, Homework, Mim Mesle Madar, Kamalolmolk, Fellow Citizen, Iron Island, Gavaznha, Dental Hygiene, Kelid, The Cycle, So Close, So Far, Journey to the Land of the Traveller, The Journey, First Graders, Toothache, Maxx, The Chorus, Marriage, Iranian Style, The Marriage of the Blessed, List of Iranian films, Sooteh-Delan, Hamoon Bazha, Tofighe Ejbari. Excerpt: Unruled Paper (Persian: - Kaghaz-e bi Khatt) is a 2002 Iranian film directed by Naser Taghva'i (his first after twelve years), based on an original script by Naser Taghva'i and Minoo Farsh'chi. The film was produced in 2001 by Yekta Film. The principal roles in the film are played by Khosrow Shakibai (Jahangir) and Hadyeh Tehrani (Roya). For his role, Khosrow Shakibai was nominated for the Cry...

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Rock 'n' Film - 2826939035

159,83 zł

Rock 'n' Film Oxford University Press Inc

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Rock 'N' Film presents a cultural history of films about US and British rock music during the period when biracial popular music was fundamental to progressive social movements on both sides of the Atlantic. Considering the music's capacity for utopian popular cultural empowerment and its usefulness for the capitalist media industries, Rock 'N' Film explores how its contradictory potentials were reproduced in various kinds of cinema, including major studio productions, minor studios' exploitation projects, independent documentaries, and avant-garde works. These include Rock Around the Clock (Fred F. Sears, 1956) and other 1950s jukebox musicals; Elvis's King Creole (Michael Curtiz, 1958) and other important films he made before being drafted as well as the formulaic musical comedies in which Hollywood abused his genius in the 1960s; early documentaries such as The T.A.M.I. Show (Steve Binder, 1964) that presented James Brown and the Rolling Stones as core of a black-white, US-UK cultural commonality; A Hard Day's Night (Richard Lester, 1964) that precipitated the British Invasion, Dont Look Back (1967), Monterey Pop (1968), and other Direct Cinema documentaries about the music of the counterculture by D. A. Pennebaker; Woodstock (1970); avant-garde documentaries about the Rolling Stones by Jean-Luc Godard, Kenneth Anger, Robert Frank, and others. After the turn of the decade, notably Gimme Shelter (1970) in which Charlotte Zwerin edited David and Albert Maysles's footage of the Altamont free concert so as to portray the Stone's complicity in the Hells Angels' murder of a young man, the 60s' utopian biracial music-and films about it-reverted to separate black and white traditions based respectively on soul and country. These produced Blaxploitation and Lady Sings the Blues (Sidney J. Furie, 1972) on the one hand, and bigoted representations of the Southern culture in Nashville (Robert Altman, 1975) on the other. Both these last two films ended with the deaths of their stars, and it seemed that rock 'n' roll had died or even, as David Bowie proclaimed, that it had committed suicide. But in another documentary about Bowie's concert, Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars (1973), D.A. Pennebaker triumphantly re-affirmed the community of musicians and fans in glam rock. In analyzing this history, David James adapts the methodology of histories of the classic musical to rock 'n' roll to show how the rock 'n' roll film both displaced and recreated the film musical.

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Shadowboxing - 2835281353

188,50 zł

Shadowboxing PALGRAVE MACMILLAN

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

"Shadowboxing" presents an analysis of the history and practice of black feminisms, drawing upon political theory, history, and cultural studies in an inter-disciplinary work. Joy James synthesizes theories of social movements with cultural and identity politics. She brings into the spotlight images of black female agency and intellectualism in radical and anti-radical political contexts, challenging us to rethink our understanding of the changing African presence in American culture. From a comparative look at Ida B. Wells, Ella Baker, Angela Davis, and Assata Shakur to analyses of the black woman in white cinema and the black man in feminist coalitions, these essays focus attention on the invisible or the forgotten. James demonstrates how images of powerful women are either consigned to oblivion or transformed into icons robbed of intellectual power. "Shadowboxing" honors and analyzes the work of black activists and intellectuals and, along the way, redefines the sharp divide between intellectual work and political movements.

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We Shall Be Free! - 2842079661

211,94 zł

We Shall Be Free! COMBINED ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

A ground-breaking contribution to scholarship of the African American Left, We Shall Be Free! gives voice to black Communists and recognizes the intellectual contributions found in their protest writings. Walter Howard provides a fascinating documentary history of seven diverse and historically significant black Communists - B.D. Amis, Harry Haywood, James W. Ford, Benjamin J. Davis, Jr., Louise Thompson Patterson, William Patterson, and Claudia Jones - who attempted to foster a black culture of resistance to white racism within the workings of the Communist Party. Howard draws on FBI files, Moscow documents, and the records of the U.S. Communist Party. He surveys these black Communists addressing a wide range of vital issues such as the Great Depression, World War II, genocide and the Cold War. We Shall Be Free! presents an important section of the African American community whose thought has been minimized, discounted, or overlooked altogether by the historical profession in general. Walter T. Howard is Professor of American History at Bloomsburg University in north-eastern Pennsylvania. He is the editor of B.D. Amis, African American Radical: A Short Anthology of His Writings and Speeches and the author of Lynchings: Extralegal Violence in Florida during the 1930s as well as Black Communists Speak on Scottsboro: A Documentary History.

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WWI in Cartoons - 2845104058

61,94 zł

WWI in Cartoons GRUB STREET

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

In an age before TV and radio the impact and importance of cartoon art was immense, especially when the only sources of information were silent cinema newsreels, posters, newspapers and books - all largely black and white. The cartoon had an immediacy and universal accessibility, giving a message words could not convey. So, not surprisingly, the Great War proved an extraordinarily fertile time for cartoonists. When Zeppelins blackened the sky and U-boats challenged the Royal Navy's supremacy at sea, it was Heath Robinson's crazy cartoons and the antics of Bairnsfather's immortal 'Old Bill' that kept the British upper lip resolutely stiff. And who could take Kasier Bill, the Red Baron and all the mighty Prussians at all seriously when H.M. Bateman and Bert Thomas cocked a snook at all they held dear and the pages of Punch, Bystander, London Opinion, Le Rire, Le Canard Enchaine and such US journals as Puck, Judge and Life kept everyone amused? But not all the cartoons were lighthearted. Indeed, the vicious drawings of Louis Raemakers were powerful enough to call Holland's neutrality into question and hard-hitting cartoons by such committed artists as Dyson, the American Art Young and David Low caused considerable embarrassment to their respective governments. The Central Powers also had a wealth of talent labouring to counteract the Allies' propaganda machine and prewar satirical journals such as Kladderadatsch, Simplicissimus and Jugend rose to the challenge, producing some of the best work by such enduring artists as Johnson, Gulbransson and Grosz amongst others. Following on from the success of Grub Street's World War II in Cartoons, also by Mark Bryant, this book examines cartoons from both sides of the conflict, both in colour and black-and-white, and skilfully blends them with text to produce this unique and significant visual history of the First World War.

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Mammals of Madagascar - 2826829149

98,53 zł

Mammals of Madagascar Books on Demand

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Source: Wikipedia. Pages: 68. Chapters: Lemurs, Lemuridae, Indriidae, Aye-aye, Cheirogaleidae, List of lemur species, Ring-tailed lemur, Ruffed lemur, Taxonomy of lemurs, Evolutionary history of lemurs, Lemurs of Madagascar, Triaenops menamena, Monticolomys, Macrotarsomys petteri, Fork-marked lemur, Black-and-white ruffed lemur, Ring-tailed lemur vocalizations, Paratriaenops auritus, Voalavo antsahabensis, Red ruffed lemur, Brown-tailed Mongoose, Asian House Shrew, Greater bamboo lemur, Giant mouse lemur, Masoala fork-marked lemur, Madagascar Sucker-footed Bat, Coquerel's giant mouse lemur, Northern giant mouse lemur, Daniel's Tufted-Tailed Rat, Pariente's fork-marked lemur, Hairy-eared dwarf lemur, Greater Hedgehog Tenrec, Lesser Hedgehog Tenrec, Large-eared Tenrec, Amber Mountain fork-marked lemur, Four-toed Rice Tenrec, Mole-like Rice Tenrec, Pale fork-marked lemur, Major's Tufted-Tailed Rat, Betsileo Short-Tailed Rat, Gregarious Short-Tailed Rat, Short-tailed Shrew Tenrec, Naked-nosed Shrew Tenrec, Lesser Long-tailed Shrew Tenrec, Least Shrew Tenrec, Drouhard's Shrew Tenrec, Pale Shrew Tenrec, Voalavoanala, Pygmy Shrew Tenrec, Major's long-tailed tenrec, Greater Long-tailed Shrew Tenrec, Shrew-toothed Shrew Tenrec, Talazac's Shrew Tenrec, Cowan's Shrew Tenrec, Dobson's Shrew Tenrec, Webb's Tufted-Tailed Rat, Nasolo's Shrew Tenrec, Taiva Shrew Tenrec, Dryad Shrew Tenrec, Madagascan Rousette, Tanala Tufted-Tailed Rat, Dormouse Tufted-Tailed Rat, Northern shrew tenrec, Thomas's Shrew Tenrec, Lesser Tufted-Tailed Rat, Gracile Shrew Tenrec, Madagascan Flying Fox, Montane Shrew Tenrec, Jenkins' Shrew Tenrec, Madagascan Fruit Bat, White-tailed Antsangy, Grandidier's Free-tailed Bat, Peters's Sheath-Tailed Bat, Microgale grandidieri, Malagasy Mouse-eared Bat, Mops leucostigma. Excerpt: Lemurs (pronounced US dict: ) are a clade of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar. They are named after the lemures (ghosts or spirits) of Roman mythology due to the ghostly vocalizations, reflective eyes, and the nocturnal habits of some species. Although lemurs often are confused with ancestral primates, the anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes, and humans) did not evolve from them; instead, lemurs merely share morphological and behavioral traits with basal primates. Lemurs arrived in Madagascar around 62 to 65 mya by rafting on mats of vegetation at a time when ocean currents favored oceanic dispersal to the island. Since that time, lemurs have evolved to cope with an extremely seasonal environment and their adaptations give them a level of diversity that rivals that of all other primate groups. Until shortly after humans arrived on the island around 2,000 years ago, there were lemurs as large as a male gorilla. Today, there are nearly 100 species of lemurs, and most of those species have been discovered or promoted to full species status since the 1990s; however, lemur taxonomic classification is controversial and depends on which species concept is used. Even the higher-level taxonomy is disputed, with some experts preferring to place most lemurs within the infraorder Lemuriformes, while others prefer Lemuriformes to contain all living strepsirrhines, placing all lemurs in superfamily Lemuroidea and all lorises and galagos in superfamily Lorisoidea. Ranging in size from 30 g (1.1 oz) to 9 kg (20 lb), lemurs share many common, basal primate traits, such as divergent digits on their hands and feet and nails instead of claws (in most spe...

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