krainaksiazek commercial contracts in germany 20103055

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A Comparison of Online Shopping Behavior of American and German Consumers - 2826812866

237,03 zł

A Comparison of Online Shopping Behavior of American and German Consumers GRIN Verlag

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Diploma Thesis from the year 2004 in the subject Business economics - Marketing, Corporate Communication, CRM, Market Research, grade: 2,7, University of Duisburg-Essen, language: English, abstract: A profound shift in the economy is underway - the industrial age economy is rapidly giving way to the Internet age economy. 1 Four years after the New Economy crash the Internet Economy is booming and hopes that mobile offers will further increase the speed.2 With the number of online sales for goods and services increasing every day3, online shopping - with sales growth rates outpacing traditional retailing purchases - has become one of the fastest growing forms of shopping4. The statement above explains the reason why the term Electronic Commerce has kept both business research and business practice as occupied as barely any other term, in the last years.5 Warren D. Raisch writes about this shift in the economy that the global development and acceptance of the Internet as the new standard for communication and commerce provides us with a powerful new global Internet-based E-Business network (...). 6 Realizing that we live in a global marketplace with international trade7 additionally pushed by the Internet, companies face a stronger competition and the need to create more value for customers than their competitors. In this context, it is important for companies to realize that, through the Internet, there is a power shift to the customer. Furthermore, as customers will demand and tolerate only delightening buying experiences, it is a necessity to capture and analyze information about buying behavior in the 21st century business.8 When talking about E-Commerce, which is a part of Electronic Business (E-Business), describing the sale of goods and services via the Internet targeting a mass market9, the following two areas have to be differentiated: Business-to-Cus- tomer (B2C) E-Commerce, meaning the settlement of buying contracts between a commercial seller and an end-consumer via electronic media, and Business-to-Business (B2B) E-Commerce, describing the same action but between two commercial business partners. 10 11 In this paper, the focus lies on B2C E-Commerce as this is the most interesting area regarding marketing.12 13 Therefore, to better understand the online purchase behavior of private consumers, in the frame of the following analysis the influencing factors of shopping over the Internet are examined. Since determining the factors influencing online shopping behavior also discovers those factors hindering the usage of the Internet as a shopping platform, suggestions to improve and adjust online offers appropriately can be made.14


The goals and scope of European merger regulation. Acquisition of minority shareholderships - 2826772181

77,11 zł

The goals and scope of European merger regulation. Acquisition of minority shareholderships GRIN Verlag

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Academic Paper from the year 2014 in the subject Business economics - Law, grade: 2.0, Free University of Berlin, course: Master degree, language: English, abstract: The Merger Regulation as it stands only applies to transactions resulting in a lasting change of control. Economic theory and the Commission's experience suggest that non-controlling minority shareholdings may also in certain instances cause anticompetitive harm. The financial incentives and the influence on the target resulting from such minority stakes can raise competition concerns based on the same theories of harm as pursued under merger rules, namely unilateral or coordinated effects or input foreclosure. Unlike other competition authorities both inside and outside the EU (such as Germany, the United Kingdom, or the United States) the Commission currently has no opportunity to address such concerns where they are caused only by the acquisition of minority participations.§The European Commission is looking forward to review and potentially revise its rules for reviewing minority share acquisitions under EU competition law. The European Commission is considering amending the EUMR to allow it to review certain acquisitions of non controlling minority shareholdings. Under the current EUMR regime, the Commission can only review the acquisition of a minority shareholding and possibly prohibit it ex ante where it confers control.§Control means the possibility of exercising decisive influence on an undertaking on the basis of rights, contracts or any other means (Article 3(2) EUMR). Hence, the acquisition of a minority shareholding does not fall under the scope of the EUMR and under the Commission s jurisdiction unless it enables the minority shareholder to determine the strategic commercial behavior of the target. While in some instances competition problems caused by non-controlling minority participations might be tackled by the antitrust rules of Article 101 or 102 TFEU, these provisions would not seem to deal with all cases in which non-controlling minority shareholdings may cause competitive harm. In particular Article 101 only applies where there is an agreement between the parties which could be qualified as having the effect of restricting competition.


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