krainaksiazek community under stress 20107116
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Kuhls of Kangra University of Washington Press
In the Kangra Valley of India's western Himalaya, farmers have for centuries relied on community-managed kuhl systems--intricate networks of collectively built and maintained irrigation channels--for their rice and wheat farming. Over the years, earthquakes and floods have repeatedly destroyed villagers' kuhls. More recently, increasing nonfarm employment has drawn labor away from kuhl maintenance and from farming itself. Prevailing theories of common property resource management suggest that such conditions should cause the kuhls to die out; instead, most have been transformed and remain alive and well.In this book, Mark Baker offers a comprehensive explanation for the durability of the kuhls of Kangra in the face of recurring environmental shocks and socioeconomic change. In addition to describing how farmers use and organize the kuhls, he employs varied lines of theory and empirical data to account for the persistence of most kuhls (and the demise of a few) in the late twentieth century. Into his explanatory framework he incorporates the history of regional politics and economics as they affected kuhls during the precolonial, colonial, and postcolonial periods; the role of state involvement in kuhl construction and management; the benefits of exchanges of labor and water among members of networked kuhls; and the ways in which kuhl systems are embedded in and reproduce core cultural beliefs and practices.Scholars interested in common property resource regimes have long focused on self-organizing, community-based irrigation systems. Yet their theories cannot entirely account for the durability of common property regimes under the extreme conditions of ecological stress, economic change, and social differentiation that exist in Kangra. Baker adds new dimensions to such theories by reaching beyond them to incorporate "exogenous" factors such as the roles statemaking practices play in common property resource regimes, the importance of networks in buffering individual resource regimes from environmental stress, and the ways in which regimes are sites for reproducing and occasionally contesting the relations that constitute place and region. In doing so, he advances a new way of thinking about community-based systems of resource management--a timely subject given recent trends in many countries toward the devolution of authority over natural resource management from government to rural communities.* A fascinating study of a community-based irrigation system in the western Himalaya
Adolescents Springer Netherlands
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
This book deals with ways of helping families cope with the difficulty of rais ing adolescents. Professional social workers - along with other human ser vice professionals - encounter these families in numerous settings: child welfare and family service agencies, hospitals, schools, community mental health clinics, residential treatment centers, juvenile halls and detention centers, recreational and vocational training organizations, and many others. While families from all walks of life may be found in these settings, families who have suffered the additional stresses of poverty, discrimination, and the consequences of physical and mental illness are commonly overrepresented. Even under the best of circumstances, the adolescent years often put the strongest family structures to the test - sometimes to the breaking point. A recent national study of over one thousand average, middle-income, two parent families reviewed the strengths, stresses, and satisfactions of the family life cycle (Olson and McCubbin 1983). As many would expect, families with adolescents were found to experience more stress and lower levels of family adaptability, cohesion, and marital and family satisfaction than any other developmental stage. The families with adolescents who fared best were those with such marital resources as good communication and conflict resolution skills, satisfying sexual relations, and good parent-adolescent communication.
Vermicompost: A Bio-Organic Fertilizer LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Under present day condition, it becomes very essential to protect the environment from further degradation, develop appropriate technologies for use in recycling various organic wastes and to harness energy thus minimizing environmental stress. Vermitechnology is a promising technique that has shown its potential in certain challenging areas like augmentation of food production, waste recycling, management of solid wastes, etc. The active component involved in the biodegradation and conversion processes during composting is the resident microbial community, among which fungi play a very important role. Large-scale composting has been shown to be an important element in sustainable waste management and could have a vital role to play in meeting the obligations of the Landfill Directive. However, very few people know much about the widespread science and practice of using earthworms to compost waste on a large-scale.
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