krainaksiazek direct methane to methanol 20107359
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Methane to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals. A Catalytic Approach to Energy Sustainability and Green Chemistry GRIN Verlag
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Scholarly Research paper from the year 2014 in the subject Chemistry - Organic Chemistry, Xiamen University, language: English, abstract: Methane is considered to be an alternative for crude oil in the production of petrochemicals and clean liquid fuels. It is the most abundant energy resource ever discovered in the history of petrochemical industry, often found in remote regions and serves as a feedstock for the production of chemicals and source of energy in the 21st century. Although methane is currently being used in such important applications, its potential for the production of products such as ethylene or liquid hydrocarbon fuels has not been fully realized. A number of catalytic strategies are being explored to effectively transform methane into vital products whilst considering environmental impacts, these strategies include: steam and carbon dioxide reforming, partial oxidation of methane to form CO and H2, the direct oxidation of methane to methanol and formaldehyde, oxidative coupling of methane to ethylene and direct conversion to aromatics. Extensive utilization of methane for the production of fuels and chemicals appears to be near, but current economic uncertainties and technological associated challenges limit the amount of research activity and the implementation of emerging technologies.
Outline of Industrial Organic Chemistry, 3rd Edition Chemical Publishing Co Inc.,U.S.
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Contents - A. The chemistry of coal and crude on and the production of chemical raw materials and intermediates - I. Technology and upgrading of coal - II. Natural gas and petroleum - (1) Composition, upgrading, purification - (a) Distillation of petroleum, conversion and refining methods - (b) Refining and upgrading, dewaxing - (c) Technical properties of motor fuels - (2) The cracking processes - (3) Reforming - Ill. Hydrogenation of coal, tar, and crude oil - (1) Hydrogenation in the semi-solid phase - (2) Hydrogenation in the gas phase - Processing of the hydrogenation gases - (3) Variations of the hydrogenation processes - (a) Low temperature hydrogenation (LTH process) - (b) High temperature processes - IV. Syntheses with carbon monoxide - (1) Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide - (a) Hydrocarbon synthesis by the Fischer-Tropsch process - (b) Methanol and isobutyl oil synthesis - (2) Various syntheses with carbon monoxide - V. Production and processing of simple paraffins and olefins - (1) Technical processing of methane - (a) Synthesis gas from methane - (b) Chlorination of methane - (c) Hydrocarbons containing fluorine - (d) Hydrocyanic acid from methane (Andrussov process) - (e) Carbon black from methane and other hydrocarbons - (2) Technical processing of ethylene - (a) Halogen derivatives of ethylene - (b) Ethylene oxide - (c) Syntheses with ethylene oxide - (d) Hydration of olefins to alcohols - (3) Propane and propylene - (a) Propanol and di-isopropyl ether - (b) Production of phenol using cumene - (c) Glycerine - (d) Direct syntheses of allyl alcohol and glycerine from propene - (4) Butane and butene - (5) Higher molecular weight olefins - (6) Chlorination of higher paraffins - (7) Oxidation of paraffins - (8) Nitroparaffins - VI. Industrial processes for the production of various aliphatic compounds - (1) Dimethyl ether - (2) Diethyl ether and di-isopropyl ether - (3) Glycerine - (4) Synthetic substitutes for glycerine - (5) Aliphatic amines - VII. Acetylene production and syntheses based on acetylene - VIII. Aromatic intermediates - B. The chemical processing of raw materials produced in agriculture and forestry - I. Wood as a chemical raw material - II. Sugar, starch and glucose - III. The fermentation industry - IV. Technology of fats, oils, fatty acids and sopas - V. Tanning and the manufacture of leather, Tannins - C. The manufacture of commodities by chemical processing of natural and synthetic raw materials - I. Synthetic fibres - II. Raw materials for lacquers, plastics, elastomers, exchange resins, silicones - lII. Textile auxiliaries and washing raw materials - IV. Pharmaceutical products - V. Protection of plants and stores (pesticides) - VI. Synthetic organic dyestuffs - VII. Explosives (gunpowder and blasting agents) - Subject - index - Full TOC and Sample available at website.
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t1=0.04, t2=0, t3=0, t4=0, t=0.041