krainaksiazek france in the age of the scientific state 20106703
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Pre-Text/Text/Context Ohio State University Press
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
The nineteenth century in France is a nightmare for literary historians. Their thirst for categorization is more easily quenched by prior centuries, to which, because they seem unified by cohesive preoccupations and common goals, such appellations as the Renaissance, the Classical Age or le grand sičcle, and the Enlightenment or Age of Ideas are appropriately applied. For the protean nineteenth century, for which no such handy tag has been or can be devised, is beyond all else distinguished by extreme heterogeneity and eclecticism. A period of chaotic social and political instability, of scientific and industrial revolution, it is, in literature, a time not of solidarity, but of unprecedented individualism. If such diversity precludes coherence in nineteenth-century French literature, it can itself be recognized as the "organizing" element of this literary epoch. And it is precisely this paradox that the essays in this volume intend to reflect. They are not unified, as orthodoxy might dictate, by a common approach or theme or author. Rather they are marked, as was the century that is their context, by divergence and variety, not harmony and consistency. Eclecticism, indeed, has shaped the basic conception of the collection. Part 1 examines themes, presented as "pre-text," that inform either authorial motivation or the orientation of a text prior to its actual inscription. Part 2 approaches the process of writing from the perspective of the text itself. And Part 3 is concerned with those spatial, temporal, and linguistic elements ("context") that surround the literary text. Robert L. Mitchell is assistant professor of Romance languages and literatures at the Ohio State University.
The Theory of Knowledge Forgotten Books
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Excerpt from The Theory of Knowledge: A Contribution to Some Problems of Logic and Metaphysics The world of thought at the present day is in a somewhat anomalous condition. We have come to the point where science seems to stand in real danger of being ruined by her own success. The mass of accumulated fact on which she justly prides herself has become too vast for any single, mind to master. There could be no Aristotle in the nineteenth century. Year by year it becomes more difficult to take any sort of view of the whole field of knowledge which should be at once comprehensive and accurate. It results that positive knowledge can scarcely be said any longer to have a general purpose or tendency. Intellectually, it is an age of detail. The unity which we miss in science we might hope to find in philosophy. And here, indeed, our century has done its best. In Germany, in France, and in England it has produced great systems, containing elements of high permanent value. But these systems date from before the deluge of specialism. And they have all been, not so much refuted, - for a dialectical refutation can, after all, be lived down, - as undermined by the subsequent movement of thought and discovery. Nor is this all. Not only is there no accepted scientific system, but in England, at least, the tendency of philosophic work is scarcely sympathetic to science. So far from seeing our way to a near or distant synthesis, we are more distracted than ever when we turn from science to philosophy. Instead of uniting the sciences, philosophy threatens to become a separate and even a hostile doctrine. The antagonism is doubtless veiled, and the philosopher, like the theologian, is careful to avoid direct conflict with a far stronger foe. But the veil is not difficult to pierce. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.
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