# krainaksiazek heat and mass transfer during condensation 20124099

- znaleziono 10 produkty w 1 sklepie

### Heat and Mass Transfer During Condensation LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

Condensation heat transfer is an important, fundamental thermal-hydraulic process that is relevant to many industrial applications. As the case of runoff, heating and / or cooling, concentration of dilute solutions and in refrigeration. This work aims to understand at first, the phenomena that characterize the coupled transfer of heat and mass during the film condensation of pure fluid such as R134a and water vapor in the presence air (noncondensable gas). Then there is the study of the condensation of a ternary mixture (alcohol-alcohol, alcohol-water) in the presence of noncondensable gas. There is also the film condensation of a condensable gas within a porous wall channel. In the porous medium, the flow is described by the model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer. The goal is to provide relevant information by examining the influence of various system parameters.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer Alpha Science International Ltd

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

"Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer" is an introductory text elaborating the interface between Heat Transfer and subjects like Thermodynamics or Fluid Mechanics presenting the scientific basis of the equations and their physical explanations in a lucid way. The basic theories such as the Boundary Layer Theory and theories related to bubble growth during phase change have been explained in detail. In two-phase heat transfer, the deviations from standard theories such as the Nusselt's theory of condensation have been discussed. In the chapter on heat exchangers detailed classification, selection, analysis and design procedures have been enumerated while two chapters on numerical simulation have also been included.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Condensation of HFC-134a and HFC-404A in a smooth and micro-fin tube LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

The purpose of this work was to study the condensation heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics ofHFC-134a in a micro-fined tube with an 18 degree helix angle and to compare them to those in a smooth tube for various operating conditions.The experimental test facility is designed, developed and is used to determine the condensation HTC and pressure drop in smooth and micro-fin tubes for various HFC refrigerants namely HFC-134a, R-404A, R-407C, R-507A. The experimentation covers wide range of operating parameters such as mass flux and condensing temperatures. The instrumentations used for measurements are calibrated from recognized calibration centres. The hermetically sealed compressor is used for circulating refrigerant; effect of oil present in the refrigerant during condensation is also taken into account. The condensation of HFC-134a and R-404A in smooth and micro-fin tubes are measured and obtained the values of condensation HTCs and pressure drops for different mass flux and condensing temperatures

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Free Convection Film Flows and Heat Transfer Springer, Berlin

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

This book presents recent developments in systematic studies of hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, as well as accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids (FFNF). A novel system of analysis models is provided with a developed velocity component method and a system of models for treatment of variable thermophysical properties is presented.This book presents recent developments in systematic studies of hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, as well as accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids (FFNF). A novel system of analysis models is provided with a developed velocity component method, instead of traditional Falkner-Skan type transformation, and a system of models for treatment of variable thermophysical properties is presented with an innovative temperature parameter method that makes it easier to similarly treat related governing differential equations for consideration of fluid variable thermophysical properties. A pseudo-similarity method is applied for dealing with thermal boundary layer of FFNF, furthermore, with an induced local Prandtl number, which greatly simplifies the heat-transfer analysis and numerical calculation. Based on rigorous theoretical analyses, a system of numerical solutions is formulated by special curve-fitting approaches for simple and reliable predictions of heat and mass transfer and hydrodynamics. In view of a shortage of experimental results for velocity field of free convection boundary layer, recent rigorous experimental measurements are presented covering large temperature differences.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Free Convection Film Flows and Heat Transfer Springer, Berlin

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

In its second edition, this book reviews progress in the study of hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, and accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

Pulsating heat pipes (PHP) have created a newer arena and promising possibilities as passive devices for heat transfer applications, especially suited for thermal management of electronics. A closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) made of copper with 2.5 mm ID and 3 mm OD with fin in the condenser section is used in the present work to evaluate the heat transfer performances where the evaporation section is 50 mm, adiabatic section is 120 mm and condensation section is 80 mm. The attempt is to analyze and compare the effects on the heat transfer performances of CLPHP with finned, fin-inserted and un-finned condenser section with inclination angle of 0 (vertical), 30 and 45 . Methanol and Ethanol are used as working fluids with 50% filling ratio in CLPHP with 8 loops during the experimentation. The experimental results indicate a strong influence of gravity and thermo physical properties of the working fluid on the performance of the CLPHP studied with different orientation and heat load. The results demonstrate the effect of fin and fin-insert used in condenser section, the input heat flux, inclination angle orientation and physio-chemical properties of the working fluid.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Statistical Physics Dover Publications

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

PART I Principles of statistical thermodynamics 1 The first law of thermodynamics 1-1. Systems and state variables 1-2. The equation of state 1-3. "Large" and "small" systems; statistics of Gibbs versus Boltzman" 1-4. "The First Law; heat, work, and energy" 1-5. Precise formulation of the First Law for quasistatic change Problems 2 Elementary statistical methods in physics 2-1. Probability distributions; binomial and Poisson distributions 2-2. Distribution function for large numbers; Gaussian distribution 2-3. Statistical dealing with averages in time; virial theorem Problems 3 Statistical counting in mechanics 3-1. Statistical counting in classical mechanics; Liouville theorem and ergodic hypothesis 3-2. Statistical counting in quantum mechanics Problems 4 The Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution law 4-1. Derivation of the Gibbsian or canonical distribution 4-2. Elucidation of the temperature concept 4-3. The perfect gas; Maxwellian distribution 4-4. Energy distribution for small and large samples; thermodynamic limit 4-5. Equipartition theorem and dormant degrees of freedom Problems 5 Statistical justification of the Second Law 5-1. Definition of entropy; entropy and probability 5-2. "Proof of the Second Law for "clamped" systems" 5-3. The Ehrenfest or adiabatic principle 5-4. Extension of the Second Law to general systems 5-5. Simple examples of entropy expressions 5-6. Examples of entropy-increasing processes 5-7. Third Law of thermodynamics Problems 6 Older ways to the Second Law 6-1. Proof by the method of Carnot cycles 6-2. Proof of Caratheodory Problems 7 Thermodynamic exploitation of the Second Law; mass transfer problems 7-1. Legendre transformations and thermodynamic potentials 7-2. Thermodynamics of bulk properties; extensive and intensive variables 7-3. Equilibrium of two phases; equation of Clausius and Clapeyron 7-4. "Equilibrium of multiphase, multicomponents systems; Gibbs' phase rule" 7-5. Refined study of the two-phase equilibrium; vapor pressure of small drops Problems 8 The grand ensemble; classical statistics of independent particles 8-1. Statistics of the grand ensemble 8-2. Other modified statistics; Legendre-transformed partition functions 8-3. Maxwell-Boltzmann particle statistics 8-4. Particle versus system partition function; Gibbs paradox 8-5. Grand ensemble formulas for Boltzmann particles Problems 9 Quantum statistics of independent particles 9-1. Pauli exclusion principle 9-2. Fermi-Dirac statistics 9-3. Theory of the perfect Fermi gas 9-4. Bose-Einstein statistics 9-5. The perfect Bose gas; Einstein condensation PART II Equilibrium statistics of special systems 10 Thermal properties of electromagnetic radiation 10-1. Realization of equilibrium radiation; black body radiation 10-2. Thermodynamics of black body radiation; laws of Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien 10-3. Statistics of black body radiation; Planck's formula Problems 11 Statistics of the perfect molecular gas 11-1. Decomposition of the degrees of freedom of a perfect molecular gas 11-2. Center-of-mass motion of gaseous molecules 11-3. Rotation of gaseous molecules 11-4. The rotational heat capacity of hydrogen 11-5. Vibrational motion of diatomic molecules 11-6. The law of mass action in perfect molecular gases Problems 12 The problem of the imperfect gas 12-1. Equation of state from the partition function 12-2. Equation of state from the virial theorem 12-3. Approximate results from the virial theorem; van der Waals' equation 12-4. The Joule-Thomson effect 12-5. Ursell-Mayer expansion of the partition function; diagram summation 12.6 Mayer's cluster expansion theorem 12-7. Mayer's formulation of the equation of state of imperfect gases 12-8. Phase equilibrium between liquid and gas; critical phenomenon Problems 13 Thermal properties of crystals 13-1. Relation between the vibration spectrum and the heat capacity of solids 13-2. Vibrational bands of crystals; models in one dimension 13-3. Vibrational bands of crystals; general theory 13-4. Debye theory of the heat capacity of solids 13-5. Vapor pressure of solids Problems 14 Statistics of conduction electrons in solids 14-1. The distinction of metals and insulators in fermi statistics 14-2. Semiconductors: electrons and holes 14-3. Theory of thermionic emission 14-4. Degeneracy and non-degeneracy: electronic heat capacity in metals 14-5. "Doped" semiconductors: n-p junctions" Problems 15 Statistics of magnetism 15-1. Paramagnetism of isolated atoms and ions 15-2. Pauli paramagnetism 15-3. Ferromagnetism; internal field model 15-4. Ferromagnetism; Ising model 15-5. Spin wave theory of magnetization Problems 16 Mathematical analysis of the Ising model 16-1. Eigenvalue method for periodic nearest neighbor systems 16-2. One-dimensional Ising model 16-3. Solution of the two-dimensional Ising model by abstract algebra 16-4. Analytic reduction of the results for the two dimensional Ising model 17 Theory of dilute solutions 17-1. Thermodynamic functions for dilute solutions 17-2. Osmotic pressure and other modifictions of solvent properties 17-3. Behavior of solutes in dilute solutions; analogy to perfect gases 17-4. Theory of strong electrolytes Problems "PART III Kinetic theory, transport coefficients and fluctuations" 18 Kinetic justification of equilibrium statistics; Boltzmann transport equation 18-1. Derivation of the Boltmann transport equation 18-2. Equilibrium solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation; Maxwellian distribution 18-3. Boltzmann's H-theorem 18-4. Paradoxes associated with the Boltzmann transport equation; Kac ring model 18-5. Relaxation rate spectrum for Maxwellian molecules 18-6. Formal relaxtion theory of the Boltzmann equation Problems 19 Transport properties of gases 19-1. Elementary theory of transport phenomena in gases 19-2. Determination of transport coefficients from the Boltzmann equation 19-3. Discussion of empirical viscosity data Problems 20 Kinetics of charge carriers in solics and liquids 20-1. Kinetic theory of Ohmic conduction 20-2. Nature of the charge carriers in matter; Nernst relation 20-3. Nature of the electric carriers in metals; law of Wiedmann and Franz 20-4. Separation of carrier density and carrier velocity; Hall effect Problems 21 Kinetics of charge carriers in gases 21-1. Kinetics of the polarization force 21-2. "High field" velocity distribution of ions and electrons in gases" 21-3. Velocity distribution functions for electrons; formulas of Davydov and Druyvesteyn 22 Fluctuations and Brownian motion 22-1. Equilibrium theory of fluctuations 22-2. Brownian motion 22-3. Spectral decompostion of Brownian motion ; Wiener-Khinchin theorem Problems 23 Connection between transport coefficients and equilibrium statistics 23-1. Nyquist relation 23-2. Kubo's equilbrium expression for electrical conductivity 23-3. Reduction of the Kubo relation to those of Nernst and Nyquist 23-4. Onsager relations Problem Supplementary Literature Answers to Problems Index

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Rotary Kilns Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

Rotary Kilns-rotating industrial drying ovens-are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution & Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing & Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass & Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications Covers fluid flow, granular flow, mixing and segregation, and aerodynamics during turbulent mixing and recirculation Offers hard-to-find guidance on fuels used for rotary kilns, including fuel options such as natural gas versus coal-fired rotary kilns Explains principles of combustion and flame control, heat transfer and heating and material balances

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Fundamentals of Crystal Growth I Springer, Berlin

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

The intrinsic properties of a solid, i. e. , the properties that result from its specific structure, can be largely modified by crystallographic and chem ical defects. The formation of these defects is governed by the heat and mass transfer conditions which prevail on and near a crystal-nutrient in terface during crystallization. Hence, both the growth of highly perfect crystals and the preparation of samples having predetermined defect-induced (extrinsic) properties require a thorough understanding of the reaction and transport mechanisms that govern crystallization from vapors, solutions and melts. Crystal growth, as a science, is therefore mostly concerned with the chemistry and physics of heat and mass transport in these fluid-solid phase transitions. Solid-solid transitions are, at this time, not widely employed for high quality single-crystal production. Transport concepts are largely built upon equilibrium considerations, i. e. , on thermodynamic and phase equilibrium concepts. Hence to supply a "workable" foundation for the succeeding discussions, this text begins in Chapter 2 with a concise treatment of thermodynamics which emphasizes applications to mate rials preparation. After working through this chapter, the reader should feel at ease with often (particularly among physicists) unfamiliar entities such as chemical potentials, fugacities, activities. etc. Special sections on ther mochemical calculations (and their pitfalls) and compilations of thermochemi cal data conclude the second chapter. Crystal growth can be called. in a wide sense, the science and technology of controlling phase transitions that lead to (single crystalline) solids.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Discrete particle modeling of a fluidized bed granulator Cuvillier Verlag

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

Size-enlargement and structuration processes in fluidized beds such as granulation and agglomeration play an important role in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries as well as in food technology to improve the flowability and the instant properties of solid products. Dustfree and free-flowing particles can be produced in a process with favourable heat- and mass transfer conditions. Furthermore, this technology allows the formulation of particles with novel functionalities by applying coating layers or via the encapsulation of active ingredients. Several interdependent micro mechanisms including particle collisions, wetting, drying and phase transitions govern the process dynamics and complicate predictions on the effect of variable operating conditions on product properties such as structure, strength and re-dissolution behaviour. Profound knowledge on these mechanisms is needed to understand the influence of individual process parameters on the final product properties.A suitable approach to model the particle interactions in fluidized beds is the Discrete Element Method (DEM) coupled with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Information on gas and particle velocities, particle rotation and collision dynamics, which are very complicated to measure in fluidized beds, can be studied in detail with this technique.This thesis presents DEM-CFD simulation results for three different granulator configurations (top-spray, Wurster-coater, spouted bed) in comparison to experimental results, regarding the agglomeration of amorphous maltodextrin (DE 21). In simulation and experiment the identical geometry of the equipment was used. Mechanical material properties, such as the coefficient of restitution and the Young's modulus, which are required for the DEM model and which are frequently used as fitting parameters, were measured via static and dynamic deformation tests using maltodextrin agglomerates, beads and bars. The strength of the experimentally produced agglomerates was characterized with a compression tester. Their flow behaviour was assessed with the help of a shear cell.Very promising results were obtained showing that the homogeneity of particle wetting can well be approximated with the residence time distribution of the particles inside the spray zone.Homogeneous wetting allows achieving a narrow product size distribution (Fries et al., 2011a).Furthermore, the growth rate of the agglomerates can well be correlated with the simulated wetting intensity, the collision frequency and the collision velocity distribution inside the spray zone. The agglomerate strength shows a strong correlation with the particle-wall collision frequency and velocity distribution found in the simulations. Good agreement was found between the simulation results for the maximum particle deformation and for the energy dissipation during collisions and the measured deformation at the breakage point and the breakage energy.Due to the high numerical effort, DEM is only suitable for small scale applications. However, the obtained information on the kinetics of particle-particle interactions can be applied as input for macroscopic process models in the framework of a multi scale modeling scheme (Fries et al., 2011b; Werther et al., 2011).It can be concluded that DEM is a powerful tool for the detailed characterization of fluidized bed granulators. Highly relevant practical answers can be obtained from the model such as the choice of the optimal equipment geometry depending on material properties and product requirements. The model can point out where to position the spray nozzles in order to achieve homogeneous particle wetting and if a draft tube is helpful to maintain stable particle circulation. Based on such findings the model shows potential to increase the throughput of a fluidized bed granulator, while avoiding a bed collapse.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

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t1=0.043, t2=0, t3=0, t4=0, t=0.043