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History of Mongolia Books on Demand
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Source: Wikipedia. Pages: 173. Chapters: Qing Dynasty, Mongol invasion of Rus', Göktürks, Xiongnu, Orkhon inscriptions, Golden Horde, Xianbei, Timeline of Mongolian history, Mongol Empire, History of modern Mongolia, Tibet during the Ming Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Liao Dynasty, Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia, Mongol invasions of Syria, Mongol invasions of Japan, Northern Yuan Dynasty, Mongol invasions of India, Oirats, Mongols before Genghis Khan, Mongol Jin Dynasty War, Mongol conquest of the Song Dynasty, Borjigin, Mongol invasions of Chechnya, Esen taishi, Mongol invasions of Korea, Pei-ta-shan Incident, Uyghur Khaganate, Mongol invasions of Vietnam, Mongol invasions of Georgia and Armenia, Rouran Khaganate, Mongol invasion of China, Kerait, Tang Dynasty in Inner Asia, Four Oirats, The Secret History of the Mongols, Xueyantuo, Manghit, Xianbei state, Mongolia during Qing rule, Mongol invasions of Tibet, Ariq Böke, Treaty of Kyakhta, Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, List of medieval Mongolian tribes and clans, Khara Khula, Kaidu, Mongolian nobility, Khamag Mongol, Jalayir, Mongol bow, Altan Tobchi, Ongud, Afanasevo culture, Ystoria Mongalorum, List of Mongolian monarchs, Protectorate General to Pacify the North, Bolad, Ordo, Mongol invasion of Central Asia, Onggirat, Alan Goa, Ötüken, Darughachi, Khöshöö Tsaidam Monuments, Choros, Outer Mongolia, Choghtu Khong Tayiji, Imperial Seal of Mongolia, Mongolian manuscript maps, Sartuul, Toquz Oghuz, Avarga, Chingissid, Tata-tonga, Altan Debter. Excerpt: The exact nature of Sino-Tibetan relations during the Ming Dynasty (1368 1644) of China is unclear. Analysis of the relationship is further complicated by modern political conflicts, and the application of Westphalian sovereignty to a time when the concept did not exist. Some Mainland Chinese scholars, such as Wang Jiawei & Nyima Gyaincain, assert that the Ming Dynasty had unquestioned sovereignty over Tibet, pointing to the Ming court's issuing of various titles to Tibetan leaders, Tibetans' full acceptance of these titles, and a renewal process for successors of these titles that involved traveling to the Ming capital. Scholars within the PRC also argue that Tibet has been an integral part of China since the 13th century, thus a part of the Ming Empire. But most scholars outside the PRC, such as Turrell V. Wylie, Melvin C. Goldstein, and Helmut Hoffman, say that the relationship was one of suzerainty, that Ming titles were only nominal, that Tibet remained an independent region outside Ming control, and that it simply paid tribute until the reign of Jiajing (1521 1566), who ceased relations with Tibet. Some scholars note that Tibetan leaders during the Ming frequently engaged in civil war and conducted their own foreign diplomacy with neighboring states such as Nepal. Some scholars underscore the commercial aspect of the Ming-Tibetan relationship, noting the Ming Dynasty's shortage of horses for warfare and thus the importance of the horse trade with Tibet. Others argue that the significant religious nature of the relationship of the Ming court with Tibetan lamas is underrepresented in modern scholarship. In hopes of reviving the unique relationship of the earlier Mongol leader Kublai Khan (r. 1260 1294) and his spiritual superior Drogön Chögyal Phagpa (1235 1280) of the Tibetan Sakya sect, the Ming Chinese Yongle Emperor (r. 1402 1424) made a concerted effort to build a secular and religious alliance with Deshin Shekpa (1384 1415), the Kar...
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