krainaksiazek physical significance of entropy or of the second law 20120253
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Książki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Mathematics & science>Physics
Książki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Mathematics & science>Physics>Thermodynamics & heatKsiążki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Mathematics & sci...
The Second Law of Economics Springer, Berlin
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Nothing happens in the world without energy conversion and entropy production. These fundamental natural laws are familiar to most of us when applied to the evolution of stars and life or the working of an internal combustion engine, but what about industrial economies and wealth production, or their constant companion, pollution? Does economics conform to the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics? In this important book, Reiner Kümmel takes us on a fascinating tour of these laws and their influence on natural, technological, and social evolution. Analyzing economic growth in Germany, Japan and the USA and its associated technological constraints, he upends conventional economic wisdom by showing that the productive power of energy far outweighs its small share of costs, while for labor just the opposite is true. Wealth creation by energy conversion is accompanied and limited by polluting emissions that are coupled to entropy production. These facts constitute the Second Law of Economics. They take on unprecedented importance in a world that is facing peak oil, debt-driven economic turmoil, and global threats from pollution and climate change. The Second Law complements the First Law of Economics: Wealth is allocated on markets, and the legal framework determines the outcome. By applying the First and Second Laws we understand the true origins of wealth production, the issues that imperil the goal of sustainable development, and the technological options that are compatible both with this goal and with natural laws. The critical role of energy and entropy in the productive sectors of the economy must be understood if we are to create a road map that avoids a Dark Age of shrinking natural resources, environmental degradation, and increasing social tensions.Nothing happens in the world without energy conversion and entropy production. This message of the first two laws of thermodynamics reflects the pivotal role of energy conversion in the evolution of stars, life, and industrial economies. In this engaging and insightful book, Professor Kümmel summarizes the facts behind these fundamental physical laws and shows why "The Constitution of the Universe" must govern economic thinking if we are to come to grips with the challenges of sustainable development. From the point of view of a physicist, the author shows why energy must be taken into account, together with labor and capital, as a factor in production and economic growth, and describes how entropy production, the ugly twin sister of energy conversion,devalues energy, increases disorder, generates emissions and pollution, and establishes limits to growth in a finite world. Since profit and overall welfare optimization are subject to technological constraints on capital, labor and energy, fundamental assumptions of mainstream economics are called into question. New econometric analyses using the capital-labor-energy triad accurately reproduce economic growth in Germany, Japan and the USA, and show that, for energy, productive power far outweighs its small share of costs while for labor just the opposite is true. Reconsidering economics from the perspective of thermodynamics can help us to create a road map for the future that avoids a Dark Age of shrinking natural resources and increasing social tensions.
Econophysics and Physical Economics Oxford University Press
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
An understanding of the behaviour of financial assets and the evolution of economies has never been as important as today. This book looks at these complex systems from the perspective of the physicist. So called 'econophysics' and its application to finance has made great strides in recent years. Less emphasis has been placed on the broader subject of macroeconomics and many economics students are still taught traditional neo-classical economics. The reader is given a general primer in statistical physics, probability theory, and use of correlation functions. Much of the mathematics that is developed is frequently no longer included in undergraduate physics courses. The statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs is one of the oldest disciplines within physics and it can be argued that it was first applied to ensembles of molecules as opposed to being applied to social agents only by way of historical accident. The authors argue by analogy that the theory can be applied directly to economic systems comprising assemblies of interacting agents. The necessary tools and mathematics are developed in a clear and concise manner. The body of work, now termed econophysics, is then developed. The authors show where traditional methods break down and show how the probability distributions and correlation functions can be properly understood using high frequency data. Recent work by the physics community on risk and market crashes are discussed together with new work on betting markets as well as studies of speculative peaks that occur in housing markets. The second half of the book continues the empirical approach showing how by analogy with thermodynamics, a self-consistent attack can be made on macroeconomics. This leads naturally to economic production functions being equated to entropy functions - a new concept for economists. Issues relating to non-equilibrium naturally arise during the development and application of this approach to economics. These are discussed in the context of superstatistics and adiabatic processes. As a result it does seem ultimately possible to reconcile the approach with non-equilibrium systems, and the ideas are applied to study income and wealth distributions, which with their power law distribution functions have puzzled many researchers ever since Pareto discovered them over 100 years ago. This book takes a pedagogical approach to these topics and is aimed at final year undergraduate and beginning gradaute or post-graduate students in physics, economics, and business. However, the experienced researcher and quant should also find much of interest.
Turning the World Inside Out and 174 Other Simple Physics De University Press Group Ltd
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
'...dipping into this collection is much like opening a holiday gift and discovering a marvelous little toy that then holds your attention by some curious performance...This book precisely reflects the way science education should be, especially at the introductory level' - From the foreword. Here is a collection of physics demonstrations costing very little to produce yet illustrating key concepts in amazingly simple and playful ways. Intended for instructors, students, and curious lay readers, these demonstrations make use of easily accessible, everyday items: food coloring and glycerine swirled and then "unmixed" in a container demonstrate aspects of the entropy law; raw eggs thrown with full force at a sheet but not breaking illustrate Newton's second law (f=ma); and the reflection off a glass Christmas tree ball is the focus of an explanation on "turning the world inside out."Many of the demonstrations are either new or include innovative twists on old ideas, as in the author's simplified version of the classic "Monkey and Hunter" problem, which substitutes "diluted gravity" on an inclined plane for large apparatus. Each demonstration outlines the objective, the equipment needed, and the procedure, including, in many instances, ways for a teacher to perform the demonstration on an overhead projector. Throughout the book concrete examples are accompanied by enough theoretical background to enhance a reader's basic understanding of physical principles. Lab instructors will find that demonstrations containing a quantitative component work well as mini- experiments and as ways to illustrate the results of calculations. These diverse and flexible demonstrations will serve a wide range of educational levels, from middle school physical science to university physics.
The Variational Principles of Mechanics Dover Publications
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Introduction 1. The variational approach to mechanics 2. The procedure of Euler and Lagrange 3. Hamilton's procedure 4. The calculus of variations 5. Comparison between the vectorial and the variational treatments of mechanics 6. Mathematical evaluation of the variational principles 7. Philosophical evaluation of the variational approach to mechanics I. The Basic Concepts of Analytical Mechanics 1. The Principal viewpoints of analytical mechanics 2. Generalized coordinates 3. The configuration space 4. Mapping of the space on itself 5. Kinetic energy and Riemannian geometry 6. Holonomic and non-holonomic mechanical systems 7. Work function and generalized force 8. Scleronomic and rheonomic systems. The law of the conservation of energy II. The Calculus of Variations 1. The general nature of extremum problems 2. The stationary value of a function 3. The second variation 4. Stationary value versus extremum value 5. Auxiliary conditions. The Lagrangian lambda-method 6. Non-holonomic auxiliary conditions 7. The stationary value of a definite integral 8. The fundamental processes of the calculus of variations 9. The commutative properties of the delta-process 10. The stationary value of a definite integral treated by the calculus of variations 11. The Euler-Lagrange differential equations for n degrees of freedom 12. Variation with auxiliary conditions 13. Non-holonomic conditions 14. Isoperimetric conditions 15. The calculus of variations and boundary conditions. The problem of the elastic bar III. The principle of virtual work 1. The principle of virtual work for reversible displacements 2. The equilibrium of a rigid body 3. Equivalence of two systems of forces 4. Equilibrium problems with auxiliary conditions 5. Physical interpretation of the Lagrangian multiplier method 6. Fourier's inequality IV. D'Alembert's principle 1. The force of inertia 2. The place of d'Alembert's principle in mechanics 3. The conservation of energy as a consequence of d'Alembert's principle 4. Apparent forces in an accelerated reference system. Einstein's equivalence hypothesis 5. Apparent forces in a rotating reference system 6. Dynamics of a rigid body. The motion of the centre of mass 7. Dynamics of a rigid body. Euler's equations 8. Gauss' principle of least restraint V. The Lagrangian equations of motion 1. Hamilton's principle 2. The Lagrangian equations of motion and their invariance relative to point transformations 3. The energy theorem as a consequence of Hamilton's principle 4. Kinosthenic or ignorable variables and their elimination 5. The forceless mechanics of Hertz 6. The time as kinosthenic variable; Jacobi's principle; the principle of least action 7. Jacobi's principle and Riemannian geometry 8. Auxiliary conditions; the physical significance of the Lagrangian lambda-factor 9. Non-holonomic auxiliary conditions and polygenic forces 10. Small vibrations about a state of equilibrium VI. The Canonical Equations of motion 1. Legendre's dual transformation 2. Legendre's transformation applied to the Lagrangian function 3. Transformation of the Lagrangian equations of motion 4. The canonical integral 5. The phase space and the space fluid 6. The energy theorem as a consequence of the canonical equations 7. Liouville's theorem 8. Integral invariants, Helmholtz' circulation theorem 9. The elimination of ignorable variables 10. The parametric form of the canonical equations VII. Canonical Transformations 1. Coordinate transformations as a method of solving mechanical problems 2. The Lagrangian point transformations 3. Mathieu's and Lie's transformations 4. The general canonical transformation 5. The bilinear differential form 6. The bracket expressions of Lagrange and Poisson 7. Infinitesimal canonical transformations 8. The motion of the phase fluid as a continuous succession of canonical transformations 9. Hamilton's principal function and the motion of the phase fluid VIII. The Partial differential equation of Hamilton-Jacobi 1. The importance of the generating function for the problem of motion 2. Jacobi's transformation theory 3. Solution of the partial differential equation by separation 4. Delaunay's treatment of separable periodic systems 5. The role of the partial differential equation in the theories of Hamilton and Jacobi 6. Construction of Hamilton's principal function with the help of Jacobi's complete solution 7. Geometrical solution of the partial differential equation. Hamilton's optico-mechanical analogy 8. The significance of Hamilton's partial differential equation in the theory of wave motion 9. The geometrization of dynamics. Non-Riemannian geometrics. The metrical significance of Hamilton's partial differential equation IX. Relativistic Mechanics 1. Historical Introduction 2. Relativistic kinematics 3. Minkowski's four-dimensional world 4. The Lorentz transformations 5. Mechanics of a particle 6. The Hamiltonian formulation of particle dynamics 7. The potential energy V 8. Relativistic formulation of Newton's scalar theory of gravitation 9. Motion of a charged particle 10. Geodesics of a four-dimensional world 11. The planetary orbits in Einstein's gravitational theory 12. The gravitational bending of light rays 13. The gravitational red-shirt of the spectral lines Bibliography X. Historical Survey XI. Mechanics of the Continua 1. The variation of volume integrals 2. Vector-analytic tools 3. Integral theorems 4. The conservation of mass 5. Hydrodynamics of ideal fluids 6. The hydrodynamic equations in Lagrangian formulation 7. Hydrostatics 8. The circulation theorem 9. Euler's form of the hydrodynamic equations 10. The conservation of energy 11. Elasticity. Mathematical tools 12. The strain tensor 13. The stress tensor 14. Small elastic vibrations 15. The Hamiltonization of variational problems 16. Young's modulus. Poisson's ratio 17. Elastic stability 18. Electromagnetism. Mathematical tools 19. The Maxwell equations 20. Noether's principle 21. Transformation of the coordinates 22. The symmetric energy-momentum tensor 23. The ten conservation laws 24. The dynamic law in field theoretical derivation Appendix I; Appendix II; Bibliography; Index
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