krainaksiazek principles of accounting ii short hand book 20097187

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The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, Vol. 1 - 2826872682

75,52 zł

The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, Vol. 1 Dover Publications

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

I. PROLEGOMENA AND GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING Clavis Sigillorum and Index of Manuscripts.?The author's intention to publish his MSS. The preparation of the MSS. for publication Admonition to readers The disorder in the MSS Suggestions for the arrangement of MSS. Treating of particular subjects General introduction to the book on painting The plan of the book on painting The use of the book on painting Necessity of the theoretical knowledge The function of the eye Variability of the eye Focus of sight Differences of perception by one eye and by both eyes The comparative size of the image depends on the amount of light II. LINEAR PERSPECTIVE General remarks on perspective The elements of perspective:?of the point Of the line The nature of the outline Definition of perspective The perception of the object depends on the direction of the eye Experimental proof of the existence of the pyramid of sight The relations of the distance point to the vanishing point How to measure the pyramid of vision The production of the pyramid of vision Proof by experiment General conclusions That the contrary is impossible A parallel case "The function of the eye, as explained by the camera obscura" The practice of perspective Refraction of the rays falling upon the eye The inversion of the images The intersection of the rays Demonstration of perspective by means of a vertical glass plane The angle of sight varies with the distance Opposite pyramids in juxtaposition On simple and complex perspective The proper distance of objects from the eye The relative size of objects with regard to their distance from the eye The apparent size of objects defined by calculation On natural perspective III. SIX BOOKS ON LIGHT AND SHADE GENERAL INTRODUCTION. Prolegomena Scheme of the books on light and shade Different principles and plans of treatment Different sorts of light Definition of the nature of shadows Of the various kinds of shadows Of the various kinds of light General remarks FIRST BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE. On the nature of light The difference between light and lustre The relations of luminous to illuminated bodies Experiments on the relation of light and shadow within a room Light and shadow with regard to the position of the eye The law of the incidence of light SECOND BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE. Gradations of strength in the shadows On the intensity of shadows as dependent on the distance from the light On the proportion of light and shadow THIRD BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE. Definition of derived shadow Different sorts of derived shadows On the relation of derived and primary shadow On the shape of derived shadows On the relativity intensity of derived shadows Shadow as produced by two lights of different size The effect of light at different distances Further complications in the derived shadows FOURTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE. On the shape of cast shadows On the outlines of cast shadows On the relative size of cast shadows Effects on cast shadows by the tone of the back ground A disputed proposition On the relative depth of cast shadows FIFTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE. Principles of reflection On reverberation Reflection on water Experiments with the mirror Appendix:?On shadows in movement SIXTH BOOK LIGHT AND SHADE. The effect of rays passing through holes On gradation of shadows On relative proportion of light and shadows IV. PERSPECTIVE OF DISAPPEARANCE Definition An illustration by experiment A guiding rule An experiment On indistinctness at short distances On indistinctness at great distances The importance of light and shade in the Prospettiva de' perdimenti The effect of light or dark backgrounds on the apparent size of objects Propositions on Prospettiva de' perdimenti from MS. C. V. THEORY OF COLOURS The reciprocal effects of colours on objects placed opposite each other Combination of different colours in cast shadows The effect of colours in the camera obscura On the colours of derived shadows On the nature of colours On gradations in the depth of colours On the reflection of colours On the use of dark and light colours in painting On the colours of the rainbow VI. PERSPECTIVE OF COLOUR AND AERIAL PERSPECTIVE   General rules An exceptional case An experiment The practice of the Prospettiva de' colori The rules of aerial perspective On the relative density of the atmosphere On the colour of the atmosphere VII. ON THE PROPORTIONS AND ON THE MOVEMENTS OF THE HUMAN FIGURE Preliminary observations Proportions of the head and face Proportions of the head seen in front Proportions of the foot Relative proportions of the hand and foot Relative proportions of the foot and of the face Proportions of the leg On the central point of the whole body The relative proportions of the torso and of the whole figure The relative proportions of the head and of the torso The relative proportions of the torso and of the leg The relative proportions of the torso and of the foot The proportions of the whole figure The torso from the front and back Vitruvius' scheme of proportions The arm and head Proportions of the arm The movement of the arm & The study of the antique The necessity of anatomical knowledge How to acquire practice Industry and thoroughness the first conditions The artist's private life and choice of company The distribution of time for studying On the productive power of minor artists A caution against one-sided study How to acquire universality Useful games and exercises II. THE ARTIST'S STUDIO.?INSTRUMENTS AND HELPS FOR THE APPLICATION OF PERSPECTIVE.?ON JUDGING OF A PICTURE. On the size of the studio On the construction of windows On the best light for painting On various helps in preparing a picture On the management of works On the limitations of painting On the choice of a position The apparent size of figures in a picture "The right position of the artist, when painting and of spectator" III. THE PRACTICAL METHODS OF LIGHT AND SHADE AND AËRIAL PERSPECTIVE Gradations of light and shade On the choice of light for a picture The distribution of light and shade The juxtaposition of light and shade On the lighting of the background On the lighting of white objects The methods of aërial perspective IV. OF PORTRAIT AND FIGURE PAINTING. Of sketching figures and portraits The position of the head Of the light on the face General suggestions for historical pictures How to represent the differences of age and sex Of representing the emotions Of representing imaginary animals The selection of forms How to pose figures Of appropriate gestures V. SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITIONS. Of painting battle-pieces Of depicting night-scenes Of depicting a tempest Of representing the deluge Of depicting natural phenomena VI. THE ARTIST'S MATERIALS. Of chalk and paper On the preparation and use of colours Of preparing the panel The preparation of oils On varnishes On chemical materials VII. PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING. The relation of art and nature Painting is superior to poetry Painting is superior to sculpture Aphorisms On the history of painting The painter's scope X. STUDIES AND SKETCHES FOR PICTURES AND DECORATIONS On pictures of the Madonna Bernardo di Bandino's portrait Notes on the Last Supper On the battle of Anghiari Allegorical representations referring to the duke of Milan Allegorical representations Arrangement of a picture List of drawings Mottoes and Emblems REFERENCE TABLE TO THE NUMERICAL ORDER OF THE CHAPTERS


Original Home Schooling Series by Charlotte Mason - 2826906369

189,76 zł

Original Home Schooling Series by Charlotte Mason Wilder Publications

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Charlotte Mason was a late nineteenth-century British educator whose ideas were far ahead of her time. She believed that children are born persons worthy of respect, rather than blank slates, and that it was better to feed their growing minds with living literature and vital ideas and knowledge, rather than dry facts and knowledge filtered and pre-digested by the teacher. Her method of education, still used by some private schools and many homeschooling families, is gentle and flexible, especially with younger children, and includes first-hand exposure to great and noble ideas through books in each school subject, conveying wonder and arousing curiosity, and through reflection upon great art, music, and poetry; nature observation as the primary means of early science teaching; use of manipulatives and real-life application to understand mathematical concepts and learning to reason, rather than rote memorization and working endless sums; and an emphasis on character and on cultivating and maintaining good personal habits. Schooling is teacher-directed, not child-led, but school time should be short enough to allow students free time to play and to pursue their own worthy interests such as handicrafts. Traditional Charlotte Mason schooling is firmly based on Christianity, although the method is also used successfully by secular families and families of other religions. Here in one affordable volume is her complete Homeschooling Series: Home Education: Six lectures by Charlotte Mason about the raising and educating of young children (up to the age of nine), for parents and teachers. She details how lessons in various school subjects can be done using her approach. She concludes with remarks about the Will, the Conscience, and the Divine Life in the Child. Parents and Children: A collection of 26 articles from the original Parent's Review magazines to encourage and instruct parents. School Education: Thoughts about the teaching and curriculum of children aged 9-12, either at school or at home. Ourselves: A character curriculum book written directly to children. Book I, Self-Knowledge, is for elementary school students; Book II, Self-Direction, is for older students. Formation of Character: Includes case studies of children (and adults) who cured themselves of bad habits; reflections on subjects including both schooling and vacations (or "stay-cations" as we now call them); various aspects of home schooling, with a special section detailing the things that Charlotte Mason thought were important to teach to girls in particular; and examples of how education affected outcome of character in famous writers of her day. Towards a Philosophy of Education: Charlotte Mason's final book, written after years of seeing her approach in action. This volume gives the best overview of her philosophy, and includes the final version of her 20 Principles. This book is particularly directed to parents of older children, about ages 12 and up, but is a valuable overview for parents of younger children as well, covering both theory and practice.


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