# krainaksiazek relativistic quantum theory of particles i 20097240

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### Relativistic Quantum Theory of Particles. I LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

This two-volume book series is an attempt to formulate a consistent relativistic quantum theory of interacting charged particles. The major construction will be undertaken in the second volume. Our goal in this first volume is to prepare the reader for that effort. Here we will introduce notation, terminology, and basic ideas of relativistic quantum theories. Our discussion will proceed systematically and, more or less traditionally, from the principle of relativity and postulates of measurements to the renormalization in quantum electrodynamics. This will cover material usually found in textbooks on quantum field theory. However, we will choose particles (rather than fields) as our basic ingredients. Quantum fields will be regarded as mere mathematical tools, which are convenient for building relativistically invariant and cluster separable particle interactions. The reader is expected to have a good grasp of non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

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### Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory Alpha Science International Ltd

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"Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory" deals with the single particle relativistic wave equations and the elements of quantum field theory. The Klein-Gordon equation is discussed briefly and elaborately the Dirac equation, its free particle solutions and Feynman's positron theory with a view to emphasize how the intuitive approach of Feynman has enormously simplified the calculations in Quantum Electrodynamics - the interaction of radiation with matter - by the introduction of Feynman diagrams. It is shown that Feynman's approach is equivalent to the other more general approach of quantum field theory and the equivalence of the two approaches has been demonstrated through the S-matrix formalism which leads to the Feynman diagrams by the application of Wick's theorem. How the quantum field theory is stretched beyond quantum electrodynamics to include electro weak interactions and strong interactions and how it leads to the formulation of the standard model of elementary particles are briefly discussed.

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### Relativistic Quantum Physics Cambridge University Press

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Quantum physics and special relativity theory were two of the greatest breakthroughs in physics during the twentieth century and contributed to paradigm shifts in physics. This book combines these two discoveries to provide a complete description of the fundamentals of relativistic quantum physics, guiding the reader effortlessly from relativistic quantum mechanics to basic quantum field theory. The book gives a thorough and detailed treatment of the subject, beginning with the classification of particles, the Klein

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### Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. Wave Equations Springer, Berlin

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Relativistic Quantum Mechanics - Wave Equations concentrates mainly on the wave equations for spin-0 and spin-1/2 particles. Chapter 1 deals with the Klein-Gordon equation and its properties and applications. The chapters that follow introduce the Dirac equation, investigate its covariance properties and present various approaches to obtaining solutions. Numerous applications are discussed in detail, including the two-center Dirac equation, hole theory, CPT symmetry, Klein's paradox, and relativistic symmetry principles. Chapter 15 presents the relativistic wave equations for higher spin (Proca, Rarita-Schwinger, and Bargmann-Wigner). The extensive presentation of the mathematical tools and the 62 worked examples and problems make this a unique text for an advanced quantum mechanics course.

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### Relativistic Quantum Mechanics MCGRAW-HILL COLLEGE

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In this text the authors develop a propagator theory of Dirac particles, photons, and Klein-Gordon mesons and per-form a series of calculations designed to illustrate varioususeful techniques and concepts in electromagnetic, weak, andstrong interactions. these include defining and implementingthe renormalization program and evaluating effects of radia-tive corrections, such as the Lamb shift, in low-ordercalculations. The necessary background for the book is pro-vided by a course in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics atthe general level of Schiff's text, QUANTUM MECHANICS.

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### Nonlocal Quantum Field Theory and Stochastic Quantum Mechanics Springer Netherlands

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over this stochastic space-time leads to the non local fields considered by G. V. Efimov. In other words, stochasticity of space-time (after being averaged on a large scale) as a self-memory makes the theory nonlocal. This allows one to consider in a unified way the effect of stochasticity (or nonlocality) in all physical processes. Moreover, the universal character of this hypothesis of space-time at small distances enables us to re-interpret the dynamics of stochastic particles and to study some important problems of the theory of stochastic processes [such as the relativistic description of diffusion, Feynman type processes, and the problem of the origin of self-turbulence in the motion of free particles within nonlinear (stochastic) mechanics]. In this direction our approach (Part II) may be useful in recent developments of the stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics and fields due to E. Nelson, D. Kershaw, I. Fenyes, F. Guerra, de la Pena-Auerbach, J. -P. Vigier, M. Davidson, and others. In particular, as shown by N. Cufaro Petroni and J. -P. Vigier, within the discussed approach, a causal action-at-distance interpretation of a series of experiments by A. Aspect and his co-workers indicating a possible non locality property of quantum mechanics, may also be obtained. Aspect's results have recently inspired a great interest in different nonlocal theories and models devoted to an understanding of the implications of this nonlocality. This book consists of two parts.

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### Operational Quantum Theory I Springer, Berlin

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Operational Quantum Theory I is a distinguished work on quantum theory at an advanced algebraic level. The classically oriented hierarchy with objects such as particles as the primary focus, and interactions of these objects as the secondary focus is reversed with the operational interactions as basic quantum structures. Quantum theory, specifically nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, is developed from the theory of Lie group and Lie algebra operations acting on both finite and infinite dimensional vector spaces. In this book, time and space related finite dimensional representation structures and simple Lie operations, and as a non-relativistic application, the Kepler problem which has long fascinated quantum theorists, are dealt with in some detail. Operational Quantum Theory I features many structures which allow the reader to better understand the applications of operational quantum theory, and to provide conceptually appropriate descriptions of the subject.Operational Quantum Theory I aims to understand more deeply on an operational basis what one is working with in nonrelativistic quantum theory, but also suggests new approaches to the characteristic problems of quantum mechanics.

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### Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory Dover Childrens Books

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I. INTRODUCTORY 1. Theory and Experiment 2. The Fundamental Concepts of Quantum Theory a) Wilson Photographs b) "Diffraction of Matter Waves (Davisson and Germer, Thomson, Rupp)" c) The Diffraction of X-Rays d) The Compton-Simon Experiment e) The Collision Experiments of Franck and Hertz II. CRITIQUE OF THE PHYSICAL CONCEPTS OF THE CORPUSCULAR THEORY 1. The Uncertainty Relations 2. Illustrations of the Uncertainty Relations a) Determination of the Position of a Free Particle b) Measurement of the Velocity or Momentum of a Free Particle c) Bound Electrons d) Energy Measurements III. CRITIQUE OF THE PHYSICAL CONCEPTS OF THE WAVE THEORY 1. The Uncertainty Relations for Waves 2. Discussion of an Actual Measurement of the Electromagnetic Field IV. THE STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM THEORY 1. Mathematical Considerations 2. Interference of Probabilities 3. Bohr's Concept of Complementarity V. DISCUSSION OF IMPORTANT EXPERIMENTS 1. The C. T. R. Wilson Experiments 2. Diffraction Experiments 3. The Experiment of Einstein and Rupp 4. "Emission, Absorption, and Dispersion of Radiation" a) Application of the Conservation Laws b) Correspondence Principle and the Method of Virtual Charges c) The Complete Treatment of Radiation and Matter 5. Interference and the Conservation Laws 6. The Compton Effect and the Compton-Simon Experiment 7. Radiation Fluctuation Phenomena 8. Relativistic Formulation of the Quantum Theory APPENDIX: THE MATHEMATICAL APPARATUS OF THE QUANTUM THEORY 1. The Corpuscular Concept of Matter 2. The Transformation Theory 3. The Schršdinger Equation 4. The Perturbation Method 5. Resonance between Two Atoms: the Physical Interpretation of the Transformation Matrices 6. The Corpuscular Concept for Radiation 7. Quantum Statistics 8. The Wave Concept for Matter and Radiation: Classical Theory 9. Quantum Theory of Wave Fields 10. Application to Waves of Negative Charge 11. Proof of the Mathematical Equivalence of the Quantum Theory of Particles and of Waves 12. Application to the Theory of Radiation INDEX

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### Relativistic Effects in Chemistry John Wiley & Sons Inc

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E = mc2 and the Periodic Table ...RELATIVISTIC EFFECTS IN CHEMISTRY This century's most famous equation, Einstein's special theory of relativity, transformed our comprehension of the nature of time and matter. Today, making use of the theory in a relativistic analysis of heavy molecules, that is, computing the properties and nature of electrons, is the work of chemists intent on exploring the mysteries of minute particles. The first work of its kind, Relativistic Effects in Chemistry details the computational and analytical methods used in studying the relativistic effects in chemical bonding as well as the spectroscopic properties of molecules containing very heavy atoms. The first of two independent volumes, Part A: Theory and Techniques describes the basic techniques of relativistic quantum chemistry. Its systematic five--part format begins with a detailed exposition of Einstein's special theory of relativity, the significance of relativity in chemistry, and the nature of relativistic effects, especially with molecules containing both main group atoms and transition metal atoms. Chapter 3 discusses the fundamentals of relativistic quantum mechanics starting from the Klein--Gordon equation through such advanced constructs as the Breit--Pauli and Dirac multielectron Hamiltonian. Modern computational techniques, of importance with problems involving very heavy molecules, are outlined in Chapter 4. These include the relativistic effective core potentials, ab initio CASSCF, CI, and RCI techniques. Chapter 5 describes relativistic symmetry using the double group symmetry of molecules and the classification of relativistic electronic states and is of special importance to chemists or spectroscopists interested in computing or analyzing electronic states of molecules containing very heavy atoms. An exceptional introduction to one of chemistry's foremost analytical techniques, Relativistic Effects in Chemistry is also evidence of the still unending reverberations of Einstein's revolutionary theory.

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### Quantum Field Theory DOVER PUBLICATIONS

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Preface General References 1. Classical Theory 1.1 Principle of Least Action 1.1.1 Classical Motion 1.1.2 Electromagnetic Field as an Infinite Dynamical System 1.1.3 Electromagnetic Interaction of a Point Particle 1.2 Symmetries and Conservation Laws 1.2.1 Fundamental Invariants 1.2.2 Energy Momentum Tensor 1.2.3 Internal Symmetries 1.3 Propagation and Radiation 1.3.1 Green Functions 1.3.2 Radiation 2. The Dirac Equation 2.1 Toward a Relativistic Wave Equation 2.1.1 Quantum Mechanics and Relativity 2.1.2 The Dirac Equation 2.1.3 Relativistic Covariance 2.2 Physical Content 2.2.1 Plane Wave Solutions and Projectors 2.2.2 Wave Packets 2.2.3 Electromagnetic Coupling 2.2.4 Foldy-Wouthuysen Transformation 2.3 Hydrogen-like Atoms 2.3.1 Nonrelativistic versus Relativistic Spectrum 2.3.2 Dirac Theory 2.4 Hole Theory and Charge Conjugation 2.4.1 Reinterpretation of Negative Energy Solutions 2.4.2 Charge Conjugation 2.4.3 Zero-Mass Particles 2.5 Dirac Propagator 2.5.1 Free Propagator 2.5.2 Propagation in an Arbitrary External Electromagnetic Field 2.5.3 Application to the Coulomb Scattering 2.5.4 Fock-Schwinger Proper Time Method 3. Quantization--Free Fields 3.1 Canonical Quantization 3.1.1 General Formulation 3.1.2 Scalar Field 3.1.3 Charged Scalar Field 3.1.4 Time-Ordered Product 3.1.5 Thermodynamic Equilibrium 3.2 Quantized Radiation Field 3.2.1 Indefinite Metric 3.2.2 Propagator 3.2.3 Massive Vector Field 3.2.4 Vacuum Fluctuations 3.3 Dirac Field and Exclusion Principle 3.3.1 Anticommutators 3.3.2 Fock Space for Fermions 3.3.3 Relation between Spin and Statistics--Propagator 3.4 Discrete Symmetries 3.4.1 Parity 3.4.2 Charge Conjugation 3.4.3 Time Reversal 3.4.4 Summary 4. Interaction with an External Field 4.1 Quantized Electromagnetic Field Interacting with a Classical Source 4.1.1 Emission Probabilities 4.1.2 Emitted Energy and the Infrared Catastrophe 4.1.3 Induced Absorption and Emission 4.1.4 S Matrix and Evolution Operator 4.2 Wick's Theorem 4.2.1 Bose Fields 4.2.2 Fermi Fields 4.2.3 General Case 4.3 Quantized Dirac Field Interacting with a Classical Potential 4.3.1 General Formalism 4.3.2 Emission Rate to Lowest Order 4.3.3 Pair Creation in a Constant Uniform Electric Field 4.3.4 The Euler-Heisenberg Effective Lagrangian 5. Elementary Processes 5.1 S Matrix and Asymptotic Theory 5.1.1 Cross Sections 5.1.2 Asymptotic Theory 5.1.3 Reduction Formulas 5.1.4 Generating Functional 5.1.5 Connected Parts 5.1.6 Fermions 5.1.7 Photons 5.2 Applications 5.2.1 Compton Effect 5.2.2 Pair Annihilation 5.2.3 Positronium Lifetime 5.2.4 Bremsstrahlung 5.3 Unitarity and Causality 5.3.1 Unitarity and Partial Wave Decomposition 5.3.2 Causality and Analyticity 5.3.3 The Jost-Lehmann-Dyson Representation 5.3.4 Forward Dispersion Relations 5.3.5 Momentum Transfer Analyticity 6. Perturbation Theory 6.1 Interaction Representation and Feynman Rules 6.1.1 Self-Interacting Scalar Field 6.1.2 Feynman Rules for Spinor Electrodynamics 6.1.3 Electron-Electron and Electron-Positron Scattering 6.1.4 Scalar Electrodynamics 6.2 Diagrammatics 6.2.1 Loopwise Expansion 6.2.2 Truncated and Proper Diagrams 6.2.3 Parametric Representation 6.2.4 Euclidean Green Functions 6.3 Analyticity Properties 6.3.1 Landau Equations 6.3.2 Real Singularities 6.3.3 Real Singularities of Simple Diagrams 6.3.4 Physical-Region Singularities. Cutkosky Rules 7. Radiative Corrections 7.1 One-Loop Renormalization 7.1.1 Vacuum Polarization 7.1.2 Electron Propagator 7.1.3 Vertex Function 7.1.4 Summary 7.2 Radiative Corrections to the Interaction with an External Field 7.2.1 Effective Interaction and Anomalous Magnetic Moment 7.2.2 Radiative Corrections to Coulomb Scattering 7.2.3 Soft Bremsstrahlung 7.2.4 Finite Inclusive Cross Section 7.3 New Effects 7.3.1 Photon-Photon Scattering 7.3.2 Lamb Shift 7.3.3 Van der Waals Forces at Large Distances 8. Renormalization 8.1 Regularization and Power Counting 8.1.1 Introduction 8.1.2 Regularization 8.1.3 Power Counting 8.1.4 Convergence Theorem 8.2 Renormalization 8.2.1 Normalization Conditions and Structure of the Counterterms 8.2.2 Bogoliubov's Recursion Formula 8.2.3 Zimmermann's Explicit Solution 8.2.4 Renormalization in Parametric Space 8.2.5 Finite Renormalizations 8.2.6 Composite Operators 8.3 Zero-Mass Limit, Asymptotic Behavior, and Weinberg's Theorem 8.3.1 Massless Theories 8.3.2 Ultraviolet Behavior and Weinberg's Theorem 8.4 The Case of Quantum Electrodynamics 8.4.1 Formal Derivation of the Ward-Takahashi Identities 8.4.2 Pauli-Villars Regularization to All Orders 8.4.3 Renormalization 8.4.4 Two-Loop Vacuum Polarization 9. Functional Methods 9.1 Path Integrals 9.1.1 The Role of the Classical Action in Quantum Mechanics 9.1.2 Trajectories in the Bargmann-Fock Space 9.1.3 Fermion Systems 9.2 Relativistic Formulation 9.2.1 S Matrix and Green Functions in Terms of Path Integrals 9.2.2 Effective Action and Steepest-Descent Method 9.3 Constrained Systems 9.3.1 General Discussion 9.3.2 The Electromagnetic Field as an Example 9.4 Large Orders in Perturbation Theory 9.4.1 Introduction 9.4.2 Anharmonic Oscillator 10. Integral Equations and Bound-State Problems 10.1 The Dyson-Schwinger Equations 10.1.1 Field Equations 10.1.2 Renormalization 10.2 Relativistic Bound States 10.2.1 Homogeneous Bethe-Salpeter Equation 10.2.2 The Wick Rotation 10.2.3 Scalar Massless Exchange in the Ladder Approximation &n 12.3 The Effective Action at the One-Loop Order 12.3.1 General Form 12.3.2 Two-Point Function 12.3.3 Other Functions 12.3.4 One-Loop Renormalization 12.4 Renormalization 12.4.1 Slavnov-Taylor Identities 12.4.2 Identities for Proper Functions 12.4.3 Recursive Construction of the Counterterms 12.4.4 Gauge Dependence of Green Functions 12.4.5 Anomalies 12.5 Massive Gauge Fields 12.5.1 Historical Background 12.5.2 Massive Gauge Theory 12.5.3 Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking 12.5.4 Renormalization of Spontaneously Broken Gauge 12.5.5 Gauge Independence and Unitarity of the S Matrix 12.6 The Weinberg-Salam Model 12.6.1 The Model for Leptons 12.6.2 Electron-Neutrino Cross Sections 12.6.3 Higher-Order Corrections 12.6.4 Incorporation of Hadrons 13. Asymptotic Behavior 13.1 Effective Charge in Electrodynamics 13.1.1 The Gell-Mann and Low Function 13.1.2 The Callan-Symanzik Equation 13.2 Broken Scale Invariance 13.2.1 Scale and Conformal Invariance 13.2.2 Modified Ward Identities 13.2.3 Callan-Symanzik Coefficients to Lowest Order 13.3 Scale Invariance Recovered 13.3.1 Coupling Constant Flow 13.3.2 Asymptotic Freedom 13.3.3 Mass Corrections 13.4 Deep Inelastic Lepton-Hadron Scattering and Electron-Positron Annihilation into Hadrons 13.4.1 Electroproduction 13.4.2 Light-Cone Dynamics 13.4.3 Electron-Positron Annihilation 13.5 Operator Product Expansions 13.5.1 Short-Distance Expansion 13.5.2 Dominant and Subdominant Operators, Operator Mixing, and Conservation Laws 13.5.3 Light-Cone Expansion Appendix A-1 Metric A-2 Dirac Matrices and Spinors A-3 Normalization of States, S Matrix, Unitarity, and Cross Sections A-4 Feynman Rules Index

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### Relativistic Cosmology Cambridge University Press

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Cosmology has been transformed by dramatic progress in high-precision observations and theoretical modelling. This book surveys key developments and open issues for graduate students and researchers. Using a relativistic geometric approach, it focuses on the general concepts and relations that underpin the standard model of the Universe. Part I covers foundations of relativistic cosmology whilst Part II develops the dynamical and observational relations for all models of the Universe based on general relativity. Part III focuses on the standard model of cosmology, including inflation, dark matter, dark energy, perturbation theory, the cosmic microwave background, structure formation and gravitational lensing. It also examines modified gravity and inhomogeneity as possible alternatives to dark energy. Anisotropic and inhomogeneous models are described in Part IV, and Part V reviews deeper issues, such as quantum cosmology, the start of the universe and the multiverse proposal. Colour versions of some figures are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521381154.

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### Theory of Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atom ACADEMIC PRESS

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Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamic Systems is intended for scientists and graduate students interested in the foundations of quantum mechanics and applied scientists interested in accurate atomic and molecular models. This is a reference to those working in the new field of relativistic optics, in topics related to relativistic interactions between very intense laser beams and particles, and is based on 30 years of research. The novelty of this work consists of accurate connections between the properties of quantum equations and corresponding classical equations used to calculate the energetic values and the symmetry properties of atomic, molecular and electrodynamical systems, as well as offering applications using methods for calculating the symmetry properties and the energetic values of systems and the calculation of properties of high harmonics in interactions between very intense electromagnetic fields and electrons. It features detailed explanations of the theories of atomic and molecular systems, as well as wave properties of stationary atomic and molecular systems. It provides periodic solutions of classical equations, semi-classical methods, and theories of systems composed of very intense electromagnetic fields and particles. It offers models and methods based on 30 years of research.

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### Operational Quantum Theory II Springer

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

Operational Quantum Theory II is a distinguished work on quantum theory at an advanced algebraic level. The classically oriented hierarchy with objects such as particles as the primary focus, and interactions of the objects as the secondary focus is reversed with the operational interactions as basic quantum structures. Quantum theory, specifically relativistic quantum field theory is developed the theory of Lie group and Lie algebra operations acting on both finite and infinite dimensional vector spaces. This book deals with the operational concepts of relativistic space time, the Lorentz and Poincaré group operations and their unitary representations, particularly the elementary articles. Also discussed are eigenvalues and invariants for non-compact operations in general as well as the harmonic analysis of noncompact nonabelian Lie groups and their homogeneous spaces. In addition to the operational formulation of the standard model of particle interactions, an attempt is made to understand the particle spectrum with the masses and coupling constants as the invariants and normalizations of a tangent representation structure of a an homogeneous space time model.§§Operational Quantum Theory II aims to understand more deeply on an operational basis what one is working with in relativistic quantum field theory, but also suggests new solutions to previously unsolved problems.§

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### Special Relativity and Quantum Theory, 1 Springer Netherlands

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Special relativity and quantum mechanics are likely to remain the two most important languages in physics for many years to come. The underlying language for both disciplines is group theory. Eugene P. Wigner's 1939 paper on the Unitary Representations of the Inhomogeneous Lorentz Group laid the foundation for unifying the concepts and algorithms of quantum mechanics and special relativity. In view of the strong current interest in the space-time symmetries of elementary particles, it is safe to say that Wigner's 1939 paper was fifty years ahead of its time. This edited volume consists of Wigner's 1939 paper and the major papers on the Lorentz group published since 1939. . This volume is intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in physics and mathematics, as well as mature physicists wishing to understand the more fundamental aspects of physics than are available from the fashion-oriented theoretical models which come and go. The original papers contained in this volume are useful as supplementary reading material for students in courses on group theory, relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, relativistic electrodynamics, general relativity, and elementary particle physics. This reprint collection is an extension of the textbook by the present editors entitled "Theory and Applications of the Poincare Group." Since this book is largely based on the articles contained herein, the present volume should be viewed as a reading for the previous work. continuation of and supplementary We would like to thank Professors J. Bjorken, R. Feynman, R. Hofstadter, J.

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### Collected Papers Vol.1: Quantum Field Theory and Statistical Mechanics. Vol.1 Birkhäuser

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Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Critical point dominance in quantum field models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 q,' quantum field model in the single-phase regions: Differentiability of the mass and bounds on critical exponents. . . . 341 Remark on the existence of q:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 On the approach to the critical point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 Critical exponents and elementary particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 V Particle Structure Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 The entropy principle for vertex functions in quantum field models. . . . . 372 Three-particle structure of q4 interactions and the scaling limit . . . . . . . . . 397 Two and three body equations in quantum field models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Particles and scaling for lattice fields and Ising models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 The resummation of one particle lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 VI Bounds on Coupling Constants Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Absolute bounds on vertices and couplings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 The coupling constant in a q4 field theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 VII Confinement and Instantons Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 Instantons in a U(I) lattice gauge theory: A coulomb dipole gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 Charges, vortices and confinement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 ix VIII Reflection Positivity Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531 A note on reflection positivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 x Introduction This volume contains a selection of expository articles on quantum field theory and statistical mechanics by James Glimm and Arthur Jaffe. They include a solution of the original interacting quantum field equations and a description of the physics which these equations contain. Quantum fields were proposed in the late 1920s as the natural framework which combines quantum theory with relativ ity. They have survived ever since.

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