krainaksiazek research handbook on transnational labour law 20126517
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Transnational Narcotics Trafficking across Vietnam Borderland and Lao People's Democratic Republic GRIN Verlag
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2017 in the subject Law - Criminal process, Criminology, Law Enforcement, grade: A, , language: English, abstract: Close proximity to the major production zones, porous borderlands, mountainous frontiers and long coastlines offer advantageous conditions for trafficking narcotics. The illicit drug situation has become much more complex in Vietnam with the growth in amphetamine-type stimulants production and trade. Even so, empirical research and analysis of the organization and operation of transnational narcotics trafficking (TransNT) remains limited. The purpose of this thesis is to present the first detailed inquiry into the nature of TransNT across the border between Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) and Vietnam using an exploratory approach which draws upon qualitative and quantitative methods. In particular, the thesis presents findings from case studies of cross-border trafficking between Vietnam and Lao PDR in the period of 2003-2013 combined with interview and survey data from criminal investigation police and drug-related crimes officers (CIPDRC) from six border provinces who are directly and indirectly involved in investigating these cases. The findings of this study indicate that drug markets in Vietnam are not controlled by monopolistic, hierarchical organizations or 'cartels'. The structures of TransNT entities operating across the Lao-Vietnam border are small, based on family ties and fellow-countrymen relations, are fluid and loosely organized. They are very adaptable and sophisticated with diverse modus operandi and multiple divisions of labour. This presents particular challenges to law enforcement agencies (LAEs). This thesis questions to capacity of Vietnam's police to enforce the government's zero-tolerance anti-narcotics policy. The study highlights practical problems and specific barriers in combating TransNT. LEAs in Vietnam and Lao PDR operate without effective mechanisms to cooperate and share information. It is also the case that traffickers often have more sophisticated equipment at their disposal to help them avoid arrest. Police forces work within national structures and yet are faced with the task of combatting transnational crime. This reality affects law enforcement capacity at a national as well as regional level, but Association of the Southeast Asian Nations member states have yet to establish effective structures for dealing with this non-traditional security challenge. Based on these findings, therefore, the thesis proposes recommendations to enhancing the effectiveness of LEAs to combat TransNT between Vietnam and Lao PDR.
Książki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Law>Laws of Specific jurisdictions>Employment & labour law
The Updated Version Of This Annual Title Includes All The Latest Information On UK And EU Employment Legislation And Cross-references To Harvey On Industrial Relations And Employment Law. The Clean, Logical Layout Ensures Research Is Quick And Easy, Enabl
International Handbook on the Economics of Integration Marston Book DMARSTO Orphans
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
With this Handbook, Miroslav Jovanovi has provided readers with both an excellent stand-alone original reference book as well as an integral part of a comprehensive three-volume set. This introduction into a rich and expanding academic and practical world of international economic integration also provides a theoretical and analytical framework to the reader, presenting select analytical studies and encouraging further research. International Handbook on the Economics of Integration, Volume III covers three broad themes: factor mobility (transnational corporations and labour migration); agriculture and environment; and quantitative studies of integration effects. A removal of barriers for the mobility of factors in certain integration arrangements among countries has an impact on the mobility of capital, firms and individuals within the group. Various aspects of this factor mobility are analysed in eight detailed chapters. The second theme of the Handbook is devoted to agriculture and environment. This is of great global relevance as the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU has been a bone of contention in international relations over several decades. Finally, seven quantitative studies of the effects of integration attempt to measure various potential benefits of regional integration efforts. Contributors to this major reference work include eminent authors, some of whom contributed to the creation of economic integration theory from the outset. The authors not only survey the literature, but also present their own arguments and new ideas in order to offer a new perspective, as well as discussing the issues they believe are essential in the field. Each of the insightful chapters is approachable not only to graduate students, scholars, researchers and policymakers, but also to advanced undergraduate students.
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