krainaksiazek some of its parts 20167099

- znaleziono 265 produktów w 13 sklepach

On the Functions of the Brain and of Each of Its Parts: Critical Review of Some Anatomico-Physiological Works; With an Explanation of a New Philosophy - 2848334754

158,04 zł

On the Functions of the Brain and of Each of Its Parts: Critical Review of Some Anatomico-Physiological Works; With an Explanation of a New Philosophy

Książki

Sklep: KrainaKsiazek.pl

Abyssus Mali, Or, the Corruption of Man's Nature: Briefly Handled in Some of Its Principal Parts; Grounded Upon Psal. 14. 1,2,3 - 2848294331

158,04 zł

Abyssus Mali, Or, the Corruption of Man's Nature: Briefly Handled in Some of Its Principal Parts; Grounded Upon Psal. 14. 1,2,3

Książki

Sklep: KrainaKsiazek.pl

Effects of a Six-Year Balanced Budget on Civilian Research and Development Parts I and II - 2837510120

43,72 zł

Effects of a Six-Year Balanced Budget on Civilian Research and Development Parts I and II Forgotten Books

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Excerpt from The Effects of a Six-Year Balanced Budget on Civilian Research and Development Parts I and II: Hearing Before the Committee on Science, U. S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session, July 23 and 24, 1996 The Committee met at 10:03 a.m. in room 2318 of the Rayburn House Office Building, the Honorable Robert S. Walker, Chairman of the Committee, presiding. The Chairman. The hearing of the full Science Committee will come to order. The Chair would ask unanimous consent that the written testimony of the witnesses be submitted in full for the record. [No response.] The Chairman. Hearing no objection, so ordered. This is the first day of two days of hearings that this Committee is going to be holding on the issue of the budget and how that budget will affect civilian research. I realize that there are some people who have looked upon this hearing as possibly being pejorative in nature. That is not the intention of this Chairman, and I hope that the kind of testimony and questioning that we have will reflect the seriousness with which I am attempting to deal with this subject. The problem is this, that we have decided, as almost a ubiquitous kind of thing, that the budgets are going to be balanced between now and the year 2002. The question then becomes, what is going to be the impact on civilian research? We went through a fairly lengthy political debate last year when we had put our seven-year plan on the table, which included some outyear downsizing of science programs. What we said at that time was that those outyear downsizings were based upon, then, prioritization, which allowed some budgets to grow while others were being reduced or totally eliminated. We were roundly criticized during that time for reducing science spending. The Administration then put forward its seven-year balanced budget, and, low-and-behold, they also had the same kinds of problems; that in the outyears, civilian research ended up being reduced as other things in the budget had to be, in order to meet the reduced amount of money for discretionary budgets in those outyears. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Travellers. an Argument in Three Parts. Part I. the Night-Watch. Part II. the Day-Watch. PT. III. the Repose. - 2826666162

94,73 zł

Travellers. an Argument in Three Parts. Part I. the Night-Watch. Part II. the Day-Watch. PT. III. the Repose. British Library, Historical Print Editions

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

bTitle:/b The Travellers. An argument in three parts. Part I. The Night-Watch. Part II. The Day-Watch. Pt. III. The Repose.br/br/bPublisher:/b British Library, Historical Print Editionsbr/br/The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom. It is one of the world's largest research libraries holding over 150 million items in all known languages and formats: books, journals, newspapers, sound recordings, patents, maps, stamps, prints and much more. Its collections include around 14 million books, along with substantial additional collections of manuscripts and historical items dating back as far as 300 BC.br/br/The FICTION & PROSE LITERATURE collection includes books from the British Library digitised by Microsoft. The collection provides readers with a perspective of the world from some of the 18th and 19th century's most talented writers. Written for a range of audiences, these works are a treasure for any curious reader looking to see the world through the eyes of ages past. Beyond the main body of works the collection also includes song-books, comedy, and works of satire. br/br/++++br/The below data was compiled from various identification fields in the bibliographic record of this title. This data is provided as an additional tool in helping to insure edition identification:br/++++br/br/b /b British Librarybr/b /b Fisher, Richard; br/b /b 1857 [1845-57].br/b /b 8ş.br/b /b 1466.g.7.br/

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Journey Into Various Parts of Europe, Vol. 2 of 2 - 2835279532

95,83 zł

Journey Into Various Parts of Europe, Vol. 2 of 2 Forgotten Books

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Excerpt from A Journey Into Various Parts of Europe, Vol. 2 of 2: And a Residence in Them, During the Years 1818, 1819, 1820, and 1821; With Notes, Historical and Classical; And a Memoirs of the Grand Dukes of the House of the Medici; Of the Dynasties of the Kings of Naples; And of the Dukes of Milan Feb. 23. - Set off at twelve, on our return to Rome; the weather was very favourable, Spring was setting in with all its beauties, the hedges were budding, the banks full of flowers, and our journey began with prosperous auspices. As was mentioned before, although the road from Naples to Capua does not abound with romantic scenery, being chiefly flat, yet the richness of the land, cultivation of the gardens, and industry of the peasants, afford ample entertainment to the passing stranger; some were pruning the vines and manuring the vineyards, preparing for their autumnal vintage, others were sowing the spring corn, and the whole presented a face of activity and industry, which was very interesting to our party. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Globalization & its Discontents - 2212824606

36,60 zł

Globalization & its Discontents Penguin

Biznes

Our world is changing. Globalization is not working. It is hurting those it was meant to help. And now, the tide is turning

Sklep: Albertus.pl

Rome and Its Empire, AD 193-284 - 2826792730

151,75 zł

Rome and Its Empire, AD 193-284 EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY PRESS

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

This was a time of civil war, anarchy, intrigue, and assassination. Between 193 and 284 the Roman Empire knew more than twenty-five emperors, and an equal number of usurpers. All of them had some measure of success, several of them often ruling different parts of the Empire at the same time. Rome's traditional political institutions slid into vacuity and armies became the Empire's most powerful institutions, proclaiming their own imperial champions and deposing those they held to be incompetent. Yet despite widespread contemporary dismay at such weak government this period was also one in which the boundaries of the Empire remained fairly stable; the rights and privileges of Roman citizenship were extended equally to all free citizens of the Empire; in several regions the economy remained robust in the face of rampant inflation; and literary culture, philosophy, and legal theory flourished. Historians have been discussing how and why this could have been for centuries. Olivier Hekster takes you to the heart of these debates and illustrates the arguments with key contemporary documents. His compelling account will engage students at all levels of study. Key Features * issues of historical significance are identified and thematically discussed * important modern debates are placed together and explored * key passages of text along with key images are gathered and accessible in one volume * includes essay questions, chronology, further reading, bibliography, and useful website resources

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Rome and Its Empire, AD 193-284 - 2826819042

478,38 zł

Rome and Its Empire, AD 193-284 EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY PRESS

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

This was a time of civil war, anarchy, intrigue, and assassination. Between 193 and 284 the Roman Empire knew more than twenty-five emperors, and an equal number of usurpers. All of them had some measure of success, several of them often ruling different parts of the Empire at the same time. Rome's traditional political institutions slid into vacuity and armies became the Empire's most powerful institutions, proclaiming their own imperial champions and deposing those they held to be incompetent. Yet despite widespread contemporary dismay at such weak government this period was also one in which the boundaries of the Empire remained fairly stable; the rights and privileges of Roman citizenship were extended equally to all free citizens of the Empire; in several regions the economy remained robust in the face of rampant inflation; and literary culture, philosophy, and legal theory flourished. Historians have been discussing how and why this could have been for centuries. Olivier Hekster takes you to the heart of these debates and illustrates the arguments with key contemporary documents. His compelling account will engage students at all levels of study. Key Features * issues of historical significance are identified and thematically discussed * important modern debates are placed together and explored * key passages of text along with key images are gathered and accessible in one volume * includes essay questions, chronology, further reading, bibliography, and useful website resources

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Medieval Amalfi and Its Diaspora, 800-1250 - 2848539601

364,17 zł

Medieval Amalfi and Its Diaspora, 800-1250 Oxford University Press

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

'Rich in gold and cloths'? This is the first full-length study of the history of medieval maritime republic of Amalfi that addresses both the internal political, social, and economic history of Amalfi - as an independent city-state, under Norman rule and as part of the Kingdom of Sicily - and the history of its diaspora, those Amalfitans who left temporarily or permanently and whose activities contributed to the image of their home city as a thriving centre specialising in the luxury end of the market. In reuniting these two disparate strands of its history, Patricia Skinner argues that, instead of being seen in opposition to each other, the very different evidence presented by the internal documentary archives and the narrative accounts of external observers can and should be utilised to reconstruct the ties which bound the emigrants to their home city. By taking a prosopographical approach, she reveals the presence of Amalfitans in many parts of the Italian peninsula and further afield in the Mediterranean. At the same time, she critically re-examines some of the externally-generated views of Amalfitan wealth, suggesting that these may have as much - or more - to do with literary and patronage networks as with the actual situation on the ground.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Elements of Chemistry - 2826834521

96,15 zł

Elements of Chemistry Dover Publications

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

PART FIRST. Of the Formation and Decomposition of Aëriform Fluids, of the Combustion of Simple Bodies, and the Formation of Acids CHAP. I.Of the Combinations of Caloric, and the Formation of Elastic Aëriform Fluids or Gaffes CHAP. II.General Views relative to the Formation and Composition of our Atmosphere CHAP. III. Analysis of Atmospheric Air, and its Division into two Elastic Fluids ; one fit for Respiration, and the other incapable of being respired CHAP. IV. Nomenclature of the several constituent Parts of Atmospheric Air CHAP. V. Of the Decomposition of Oxygen Gas by Sulphur, Phosphorus, and Charcoal, and of the Formation of Acids in general CHAP. VI. Of the Nomenclature of Acids in general, and particularly of those drawn from Nitre and Sea Salt CHAP. VII. Of the Decomposition of Oxygen Gas by means of Metals, and the Formation of Metallic Oxyds CHAP. VIII. Of the Radical Principle of Water, and of its Decomposition by Charcoal and Iron CHAP. IX. Of the Quantities of Caloric disengaged from different Species of Combustion, Combustion of Phosphorus SECT. I. Combustion of Charcoal SECT. II. Combustion of Hydrogen Gas SECT. III. Formation of Nitric Acid SECT. IV. Combustion of Wax SECT. V. Combustion of Olive Oil CHAP. X. Of the Combustion of Combustible Substances with each other CHAP. XI. Observations upon Oxyds and Acids with several Bases, and upon the Composition of Animal and Vegetable Substances CHAP. XII. Of the Decomposition of Vegetable and Animal Substances by the Action of Fire CHAP. XIII. Of the Decomposition of Vegetable Oxyds by the Vinous Fermentation CHAP. XIV. Of the Putrefactive Fermentation CHAP. XV. Of the Acetous Fermentation CHAP. XVI. Of the Formation of Neutral Salts, and of their Bases SECT. I. Of Potash SECT. II. Of Soda SECT. III. Of Ammoniac SECT. IV. Of Lime, Magnesia, Barytes, and Argill SECT. V. Of Metallic Bodies CHAP. XVII. Continuation of the Observations upon Salisiable Bases, and the Formation of Neutral Salts PART II. Of the Combinations of Acids with Salisiable Bases, and of the Formation of Neutral Salts INTRODUCTION TABLE of Simple Substances SECT. I. Observations upon simple Substances TABLE of Compound Oxydable and Acidisiable Bases SECT. II. Observations upon Compound Radicals SECT. III. Observations upon the Combinations of Light and Caloric with different Substances TABLE of the Combinations of Oxygen with the Simple Substances, to face SECT. IV. Observations upon these Combinations TABLE of the Combinations of Oxygen with Compound Radicals SECT. V. Observation upon these Combinations TABLE of the Combinations of Azote with the Simple Substances SECT. VI. Observations upon these Combinations of Azote TABLE of the Combinations of Hydrogen with Simple Substances SECT. VII. Observations upon Hydrogen, and its Combinations TABLE of the Binary Combinations of Sulphur with the Simple Substances SECT. VIII. Observations upon Sulphur, and its Combinations TABLE of the Combinations of Phosphorous with Simple Substances SECT. IX. Observations upon Phosphorous and its Combinations TABLE of the Binary Combinations of Charcoal SECT. X. Observations upon Charcoal, and its Combinations SECT. XI. Observations upon the Muriatic, Fluoric, and Boracic Radicals, and their Combinations SECT. XII. Observations upon the Combinations of Metals with each other TABLE of the Combinations of Azote, in the State of Nitrous Acid, with the Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Azote, in the State of Nitric Acid, with the Salisiable Bases SECT. XIII. Observations upon Nitrous and Nitric Acids, and their Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Sulphuric Acid with the Salisiable Bases SECT. XIV. Observations upon Sulphuric Acid, and its Combinations TABLE of the Combinations of Sulphurous Acid SECT. XV. Observations upon Sulphurous Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Phosphorous and Phosphoric Acids SECT. XVI. Observations upon Phosphorous and Phosphoric Acids, and their Combination with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Carbonic Acid SECT. XVII. Observations upon Carbonic Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Muriatic Acid TABLE of the Combinations of Oxygenated Muriatic Acid SECT. XVIII. Observations upon Muriatic and Oxygenated Muriatic Acid, and their Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Nitro-Muriatic Acid SECT. XIX. Observations upon Nitro-muriatic Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Fluoric Acid SECT. XX. Observations upon Fluoric Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Boracic Acid SECT. XXI. Observations upon Boracic Acid, and its Combinations with Sulisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Arseniac Acid SECT. XXII. Observations upon Arseniac Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases SECT. XXIV. Observations upon Tungstic Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases, and a Table of these in the order of their Affinity TABLE of the Combinations of Tartarous Acid SECT. XXV. Observations upon Tartarous Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases SECT. XXVI. Observations upon Mallic Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Citric Acid SECT. XXVII. Observations upon Citric Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Pyro-lignous Acid SECT. XXVIII. Observations upon Pyro-lignous Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases SECT. XXIX. Observations upon Pyro-tartarous Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Pyro-mucous Acid SECT. XXX. Observations upon Pyro-mucous Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Oxalic Acid SECT. XXXI. Observations upon Oxalic Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Acetous Acid, to face SECT. XXXII. Observations upon Acetous Acid, and its Combinations with the Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combination of Acetic Acid SECT. XXXIII. Observations upon Acetic Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Succinic Acid SECT. XXXIV. Observations upon Succinic Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases SECT. XXXV. Observations upon Benzoic Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases SECT. XXXVI. Observations upon Camphoric Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases SECT. XXXVII. Observations upon Gallic Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases SECT. XXXVIII. Observations upon Lactic Acid, and its Combinations with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Saccho-lactic Acid SECT. XXXIX. Observations upon Saccho-lactic Acid, and its Combination with Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of Formic Acid SECT. XL. Observations upon Formic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salisiable Bases SECT. XLI. Observations upon the Bombic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combinations of the Sebacic Acid SECT. XLII. Observations upon the Sebacic Acid and its Combinations with the Salisiable Bases SECT. XLIII. Observation upon the Lithic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salisiable Bases TABLE of the Combination of the Prussic Acid SECT. XLIV. Observations upon the Prussic Acid, and its Combinations with the Salisiable Bases PART III. Description of the Instruments and Operations of Chemistry INTRODUCTION CHAP. I. Of the Instruments necessary for determining the Absolute and Specific Gravities of Solid and Liquid Bodies CHAP. II. Of Gazometry, or the Measurement of the Weight and Volume of Aëriform Substances SECT. I. Of the Pneumato-chemical Apparatus SECT. II. Of the Gazometer SECT. III. Some other methods for Measuring the Volume of Gasses SECT. IV. Of the method of Separating the different Gasses from each other SECT. V. Of the necessary Corrections of the Volume of Gasses, according to the Pressure of the Atmosphere SECT. VI. Of the Correction relative to the Degrees of the Thermometer SECT. VII. Example for Calculating the Corrections relative to the Variations of Pressure and Temperature SECT. VIII. Method of determining the Weight of the different Gasses CHAP. III. Description of the Calorimeter, or Apparatus for measuring Caloric CHAP. IV. Of the Mechanical Operations for Division of Bodies SECT. I. Of Trituration, Levigation, and Pulverization SECT. II. Of Sifting and Washing Powdered Substances SECT. III. Of Filtration SECT. IV. Of Decantation CHAP. V. Of Chemical means for Separating the Particles of Bodies from each other without Decomposition, and for Uniting them again SECT. I. Of the Solution of Salts SECT. II. Of Lixivation SECT. III. Of Evaporation SECT. IV. Of Cristallization SECT. V. Of Simple Distillation SECT. VI. Of Sublimation CHAP. VI. Of Pneumato-chemical Distillations, Metallic Dissolutions, and some other operations which require very complicated instruments SECT. I. Of Compound and Pneumato-chemical Distillations SECT. II. Of Metallic Dissolutions SECT. III. Apparatus necessary in Experiments upon Vinous and Putresactive Fermentations SECT. IV. Apparatus for the Decomposition of Water CHAP. VII. Of the Composition and Use of Lutes CHAP. VIII. Of Operations upon Combustion and Deslagration SECT. I. Of Combustion in general SECT. II. Of the Combustion of Phosphorus SECT. III. Of the Combustion of Charcoal SECT. IV. Of the Combustion of Oils SECT. V. Of the Combustion of Alkohol SECT. VI. Of the Combustion of Ether SECT. VII. Of the Combustion of Hydrogen Gas, and the Formation of Water SECT. VIII. Of the Oxydation of Metals CHAP. IX. Of Deflagration CHAP. X. Of the Instruments necessary for Operating upon Bodies in very high Temperatures SECT. I. Of Fusion SECT. II. Of Furnaces SECT. III. Of increasing the Action of Fire, by using Oxygen Gas instead of Atmospheric Air APPENDIX No. I. TABLE for Converting Lines, or Twelfth Parts of an Inch, and Fractions of Lines, into Decimal Fractions of the Inch No. II. TABLE for Converting the Observed Heighth of Water in the Jars of the Pneumato-Chemical Apparatus, expressed in Inches and Decimals, into Corresponding Heighths of Mercury No. III. TABLE for Converting the Ounce Measures used by Dr. Priestley into French and English Cubical Inches No. IV. TABLE for Reducing the Degrees of Reaumeur's Thermometer into its corresponding Degrees of Fahrenheit's Scale No. V. ADDITIONAL RULES for Converting French Weights and Measures into correspondent English Denominations No. VI. TABLE of Weights of the different Gasses, at 28 French inches, or 29.84 English inches barometrical pressure, and at 10° (54

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Consolations of Philosophy - 2212839584

45,80 zł

Consolations of Philosophy Penguin

Nauki humanistyczne

Alain de Botton, best-selling author of How Proust can Change Your Life, has set six of the finest minds in the history of philosophy to work on the problems of everyday life. Here then are Socrates, Epicurus, Seneca, Montaigne, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche on some of the things that bother us all; lack of money, the pain of love, inadequacy, anxiety, the fear of failure and the pressure to conform.

Sklep: Albertus.pl

XSLT 2.0 and XPath 2.0 Programmer's Reference - 2826757129

258,20 zł

XSLT 2.0 and XPath 2.0 Programmer's Reference Wiley

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

This book is primarily a practical reference book for professional XSLT developers. It assumes no previous knowledge of the language, and many developers have used it as their first introduction to XSLT; however, it is not structured as a tutorial, and there are other books on XSLT that provide a gentler approach for beginners. The book does assume a basic knowledge of XML, HTML, and the architecture of the Web, and it is written for experienced programmers. There's no assumption that you know any particular language such as Java or Visual Basic, just that you recognize the concepts that all programming languages have in common. The book is suitable both for XSLT 1.0 users upgrading to XSLT 2.0, and for newcomers to XSLT. The book is also equally suitable whether you work in the Java or .NET world. As befits a reference book, a key aim is that the coverage should be comprehensive and authoritative. It is designed to give you all the details, not just an overview of the 20 percent of the language that most people use 80 percent of the time. It's designed so that you will keep coming back to the book whenever you encounter new and challenging programming tasks, not as a book that you skim quickly and then leave on the shelf. If you like detail, you will enjoy this book; if not, you probably won't. But as well as giving the detail, this book aims to explain the concepts, in some depth. It's therefore a book for people who not only want to use the language but who also want to understand it at a deep level. The book aims to tell you everything you need to know about the XSLT 2.0 language. It gives equal weight to the things that are new in XSLT 2.0 and the things that were already present in version 1.0. The book is about the language, not about specific products. However, there are appendices about Saxon (the author's own implementation of XSLT 2.0), about the Altova XSLT 2.0 implementation, and about the Java and Microsoft APIs for controlling XSLT transformations, which will no doubt be upgraded to handle XSLT 2.0 as well as 1.0. A third XSLT 2.0 processor, Gestalt, was released shortly before the book went to press, too late to describe it in any detail. But the experience of XSLT 1.0 is that there has been a very high level of interoperability between different XSLT processors, and if you can use one of them, then you can use them all. In the previous edition we split XSLT 2.0 and XPath 2.0 into separate volumes. The idea was that some readers might be interested in XPath alone. However, many bought the XSLT 2.0 book without its XPath companion and were left confused as a result; so this time, the material is back together. The XPath reference information is in self-contained chapters, so it should still be accessible when you use XPath in contexts other than XSLT. The book does not cover XSL Formatting Objects, a big subject in its own right. Nor does it cover XML Schemas in any detail. If you want to use these important technologies in conjunction with XSLT, there are other books that do them justice. This book contains twenty chapters and eight appendixes (the last of which is a glossary) organized into four parts. The following section outlines what you can find in each part, chapter, and appendix. Part I: Foundations: The first part of the book covers essential concepts. You should read these before you start coding. If you ignore this advice, as most people do, then you read them when you get to that trough of despair when you find it impossible to make the language do anything but the most trivial tasks. XSLT is different from other languages, and to make it work for you, you need to understand how it was designed to be used. Chapter 1: XSLT in Context: This chapter explains how XSLT fits into the big picture: how the language came into being and how it sits alongside other technologies. It also has a few simple coding examples to keep you alert. Chapter 2: The XSLT Processing Model: This is about the architecture of an XSLT processor: the inputs, the outputs, and the data model. Understanding the data model is perhaps the most important thing that distinguishes an XSLT expert from an amateur; it may seem like information that you can't use immediately, but it's knowledge that will stop you making a lot of stupid mistakes. Chapter 3: Stylesheet Structure: XSLT development is about writing stylesheets, and this chapter takes a bird's eye view of what stylesheets look like. It explains the key concepts of rule-based programming using templates, and explains how to undertake programming-in-the-large by structuring your application using modules and pipelines. Chapter 4: Stylesheets and Schemas: A key innovation in XSLT 2.0 is that stylesheets can take advantage of knowledge about the structure of your input and output documents, provided in the form of an XML Schema. This chapter provides a quick overview of XML Schema to describe its impact on XSLT development. Not everyone uses schemas, and you can skip this chapter if you fall into that category. Chapter 5: The Type System: XPath 2.0 and XSLT 2.0 offer strong typing as an alternative to the weak typing approach of the 1.0 languages. This means that you can declare the types of your variables, functions, and parameters, and use this information to get early warning of programming errors. This chapter explains the data types available and the mechanisms for creating user-defined types. Part II: XSLT and XPath Reference: This section of the book contains reference material, organized in the hope that you can easily find what you need when you need it. It's not designed for sequential reading, though you might well want to leaf through the pages to discover what's there. Chapter 6: XSLT Elements: This monster chapter lists all the XSLT elements you can use in a stylesheet, in alphabetical order, giving detailed rules for the syntax and semantics of each element, advice on usage, and examples. This is probably the part of the book you will use most frequently as you become an expert XSLT user. It's a "no stone unturned" approach, based on the belief that as a professional developer you need to know what happens when the going gets tough, not just when the wind is in your direction. Chapter 7: XPath Fundamentals: This chapter explains the basics of XPath: the low-level constructs such as literals, variables, and function calls. It also explains the context rules, which describe how the evaluation of XPath expressions depends on the XSLT processing context in which they appear. Chapter 8: XPath: Operators on Items: XPath offers the usual range of operators for performing arithmetic, boolean comparison, and the like. However, these don't always behave exactly as you would expect, so it's worth reading this chapter to see what's available and how it differs from the last language that you used. Chapter 9: XPath: Path Expressions: Path expressions are what make XPath special; they enable you to navigate around the structure of an XML document. This chapter explains the syntax of path expressions, the 13 axes that you can use to locate the nodes that you need, and associated operators such as union, intersection, and difference. Chapter 10: XPath: Sequence Expressions: Unlike XPath 1.0, in version 2.0 all values are sequences (singletons are just a special case). Some of the most important operators in XPath 2.0 are those that manipulate sequences, notably the "for" expression, which translates one sequence into another by applying a mapping. Chapter 11: XPath: Type Expressions: The type system was explained in Chapter 5; this chapter explains the operations that you can use to take advantage of types. This includes the "cast" operation which is used to convert values from one type to another.A big part of this chapter is devoted to the detailed rules for how these conversions are done. Chapter 12: XSLT Patterns: This chapter returns from XPath to a subject that's specific to XSLT. Patterns are used to define template rules, the essence of XSLT's rule-based programming approach. The reason for explaining them now is that the syntax and semantics of patterns depends strongly on the corresponding rules for XPath expressions. Chapter 13: The Function Library: XPath 2.0 includes a library of functions that can be called from any XPath expression; XSLT 2.0 extends this with some additional functions that are available only when XPath is used within XSLT. The library has grown immensely since XPath 1.0. This chapter provides a single alphabetical reference for all these functions. Chapter 14: Regular Expressions: Processing of text is an area where XSLT 2.0 and XPath 2.0 are much more powerful than version 1.0, and this is largely through the use of constructs that exploit regular expressions. If you're familiar with regexes from languages such as Perl, this chapter tells you how XPath regular expressions differ. If you're new to the subject, it explains it from first principles. Chapter 15: Serialization: Serialization in XSLT means the ability to generate a textual XML document from the tree structure that's manipulated by a stylesheet. This isn't part of XSLT processing proper, so (following W3C's lead) it's separated it into its own chapter. You can control serialization from the stylesheet using an declaration, but many products also allow you to control it directly via an API. Part III: Exploitation: The final section of the book is advice and guidance on how to take advantage of XSLT to write real applications. It's intended to make you not just a competent XSLT coder, but a competent designer too. The best way of learning is by studying the work of others, so the emphasis here is on practical case studies. Chapter 16: Extensibility: This chapter describes the "hooks" provided in the XSLT specification to allow vendors and users to plug in extra functionality. The way this works will vary from one implementation to another, so we can't cover all possibilities, but one important aspect that the chapter does cover is how to use such extensions and still keep your code portable. Chapter 17: Stylesheet Design Patterns: This chapter explores a number of design and coding patterns for XSLT programming, starting with the simplest "fill-in-the-blanks" stylesheet, and extending to the full use of recursive programming in the functional programming style, which is needed to tackle problems of any computational complexity. This provides an opportunity to explain the thinking behind functional programming and the change in mindset needed to take full advantage of this style of development. Chapter 18: Case Study: XMLSpec: XSLT is often used for rendering documents, so where better to look for a case study than the stylesheets used by the W3C to render the XML and XSLT specifications, and others in the same family, for display on the web? The resulting stylesheets are typical of those you will find in any publishing organization that uses XML to develop a series of documents with a compatible look-and-feel. Chapter 19: Case Study: A Family Tree: Displaying a family tree is another typical XSLT application. This example with semi-structured data-a mixture of fairly complex data and narrative text-that can be presented in many different ways for different audiences. It also shows how to tackle another typical XSLT problem, conversion of the data into XML from a legacy text-based format. As it happens, this uses nearly all the important new XSLT 2.0 features in one short stylesheet. But another aim of this chapter is to show a collection of stylesheets doing different jobs as part of a complete application. Chapter 20: Case Study: Knight's Tour: Finding a route around a chessboard where a knight visits every square without ever retracing its steps might sound a fairly esoteric application for XSLT, but it's a good way of showing how even the most complex of algorithms are within the capabilities of the language. You may not need to tackle this particular problem, but if you want to construct an SVG diagram showing progress against your project plan, then the problems won't be that dissimilar. Part IV: Appendices: A ppendix A: XPath 2.0 Syntax Summary: Collects the XPath grammar rules and operator precedences into one place for ease of reference. Appendix B: Error Codes: A list of all the error codes defined in the XSLT and XPath language specifications, with brief explanations to help you understand what's gone wrong. Appendix C: Backward Compatibility: The list of things you need to look out for when converting applications from XSLT 1.0. Appendix D: Microsoft XSLT Processors: Although the two Microsoft XSLT processors don't yet support XSLT 2.0, we thought many readers would find it useful to have a quick summary here of the main objects and methods used in their APIs. Appendix E: JAXP: the Java API for XML Processing: JAXP is an interface rather than a product. Again, it doesn't have explicit support yet for XSLT 2.0, but Java programmers will often be using it in XSLT 2.0 projects, so the book includes an overview of the classes and methods available. Appendix F: Saxon: At the time of writing Saxon (developed by the author of this book) provides the most comprehensive implementation of XSLT 2.0 and XPath 2.0, so its interfaces and extensions are covered in some detail. Appendix G: Altova: Altova, the developers of XML Spy, have an XSLT 2.0 processor that can be used either as part of the development environment or as a freestanding component. This appendix gives details of its interfaces. Appendix H: Glossary Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

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Management - The Essence of the Craft - 2826820823

190,24 zł

Management - The Essence of the Craft Campus Verlag GmbH

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Author's Preface to the English Edition 2010 In this book I am presenting a new kind of management for a new kind of world. It is my concept of right and good management for functioning organizations in functioning societies of exceeding complexity. The need for such a concept arises because conventional management - by which, basically, I mean the US-type management theory and practice now applied worldwide - has come to its very limits as it is unable to deal with the consequences of its own success. The result of its tremendous achievements is a world of inextricably interrelated dynamic systems which are incomprehensibly complex. This has largely been ignored by the dominating US management approach because it was never designed for such conditions. It now fails exactly for this reason, thereby causing the present crisis. I have actually been predicting this for years in many of my publications, including the German version of this book which was first published in 2005. The fact that success almost inevitably breeds its own failure is often overlooked, although it is well known in many fields and in particular in those that accept complexity explicitly as their research subject such as biology or ecology. Albert Einstein already remarked that one cannot solve problems with the same methods which produced them. Failure to manage complexity as the major cause of the worldcrisis What, at present, a majority - at least in the West - considers to be a mere financial crisis can probably be much better understood if it is looked at from an altogether different perspective: the failure to understand and manage complexity. Business and society seem to be undergoing one of the most fundamental transformations in history. Only on the surface, and only if perceived in conventional categories, do present changes appear to be financial and economic in nature. What is happening might better be understood as an Old World dying because a New World is being born. There will hardly be any bridges back to the old state of affairs. Perhaps the most practical premise to navigate by is that whatever can change will change. If so, we are witnessing no less than the almost complete collapse of the formerly so efficient US management approach, which was developed mainly in the context of business administration and taught in business schools as the ultimate wisdom with regard to the running of corporations in a world where its premises applied to an ever lesser degree. Its realities have already been changing for quite some time but this went largely unnoticed because most people tend to see only the old familiar patterns in the new realities. We are experiencing in particular the failure of the US-type of corporate governance and the kind of top management which is dominated almost exclusively by financial variables only. We see the collapse of the shareholder value approach, which due to its short term profit orientation is largely ignoring the customer and is hostile to future-oriented investing and innovating, thereby systematically misdirecting the allocation of societal resources. The failure of the US-approach is, among other aspects, the consequence of mistaking financial investment for real investment, thereby undermining the former strengths of the US-economy, of confusing mountains of bad debts with sustainable wealth, and of failing to distinguish between healthy and pathological growth. Ironically, what collapsed first was the financial system which appeared to be the most highly developed and sophisticated system ever designed. It was believed to be free of systemic risk by most experts and run by the world's most excellent executives educated in what were thought to be the best universities and business schools worldwide. However, complex systems have properties and laws of their own. Their driving forces - if systematically ignored - make them inevitably go out of control. Such systems are incomputable and unpredictable in principle and incomprehensible to the conventionally educated mind. They are non-linear, self-dynamic and continuously self-changing and self-restructuring in unforeseeable ways. They are largely self-organizing and self-regulating. Nevertheless, they can be - up to a degree - controlled and regulated albeit only by a fundamentally different kind of thinking, a new approach for managing complexity and by applying the right methods and tools which are the subject of this book and its companion volumes. Reliable Functioning by Wholistic Management Systems Economic and financial measures on the macro level alone will hardly cure the crisis. What it takes on the level of societal institutions is a new way of functioning which is described in my six volume series Management: Mastering Complexity in which I present my Malik Wholistic General Management Systems. This first volume contains an overview of the system as a whole whereas the other five volumes will describe the constitutive parts of the system. The second volume "Corporate Policy and Governance: How Organizations Self-Organize", was published in 2008 in German and will be available in English soon. The third volume on strategy is still due in 2010. The remaining three volumes will be dedicated to the new structure for functioning complex organizations, their appropriate culture and the kind of executives who have to be able to understand and master complexity. Together these six volumes will contain the essence of the most comprehensive General Management System worldwide. To the best of my knowledge my Wholistic General Management Systems are globally the only ones explicitly designed to ensure reliable functioning under conditions of exceedingly high and dynamic complexity. For this reason and because my Management Systems are universally applicable conventional business administration plays a limited role in my book. For practical reasons, however, I am going to illustrate the application of my systems mainly in the context of the business enterprise. Familiar concepts and terms are left unchanged wherever possible in order to avoid confusion for the practitioner whereas their meaning and most contents are new and different. The important new knowledge for mastering complex systems does not come from economics or business administration but from what I call the Complexity Sciences, i.e. Systemics, Bionics and Cybernetics, which can also be called the Sciences of Functioning. For the term "Functioning" I often use the synonym "Right and Good Management" as opposed to wrong and bad management. By this I want to point to the need to understand management as a true profession with its own standards of craftsmanship as indicated in the subtitle of this book. If the institutions of today's and more so of tomorrow's societies are supposed to function, management needs to liberate itself from fashions and fads and has to become a profession of the same status as for example the profession of the surgeon, the aircraft pilot or the lawyer all of which have as a matter of course their standards of professionalism. The foundation for a profession of effective management for functioning institutions is to be found in my earlier book Managing Performing Living. My General Management Systems - with the support of the experts of my own organization - have been developed, tested and implemented in numerous cases over more than 30 years in all sorts of institutions in business and non-business areas mostly in Europe and particularly in the German speaking world including their worldwide subsidiaries. What works in the complexities of these areas will almost certainly work worldwide. Having discussed the structure, functioning principles and effects of my systems with tens of thousands of executives of all levels I have strong arguments that there is only one kind of management that works effectively, namely Right and Good Management as I present it in my books, and that it is - contrary to mainstream thinking - universally valid and culturally invariant. Fashionable arbitrariness which so often characterizes management should not be given any place in what is one of the most important social functions. In most respects my Wholistic Management Systems for Functioning are the opposite of what is taught in most business schools. That they will have to change fundamentally as a consequence of the global crisis is hesitatingly becoming apparent to some - among them also a few leading ivy league schools. But it might be a long and hard way for them to recover from the fallacies of their own teachings and partly from the application of wrong management to themselves. At the same time, however, if they manage to change radically and fast it is one of the greatest opportunities for them to show effective leadership in the service of a functioning society in times of great change. Fredmund Malik St. Gallen, January 2010 Introduction "The very first step toward success in any occupation is to become interested in it." Sir William Osler (1849 - 1919), physician Our increasingly complex world cannot function without management, and it can hardly function without precise management. This is true for all kinds of societal institutions, be it commercial enterprises or other organizations. The purpose of this book is to help their managers and employees fulfill their demanding occupational tasks in a professional manner. In the midst of a jumble of doctrines, ideologies, and true innovations, this book will provide the overview required to distinguish right from wrong and useful from useless. These distinctions are indispensable for meeting both individual and shared responsibilities at each stage of a professional career. They are also crucial for successful and productive interaction. This book is a compact compendium for right and good management - for general management - in that it provides the necessary overview of what it entails. In the following volumes of this series, each of the elements of right and good management will be described in greater detail, including both theoretical content and recommended implementation approaches. Interested readers will be able to familiarize themselves with the tools and practices of the craft, along with numerous practical examples. As such, the present book is a prelude to a practical, comprehensive guide to what the management craft and managerial professionalism must entail. Sound general management is not about doing something new, modern, or fashionable. What matters is that it is right, that it works, and that it helps practitioners fulfill their tasks to the best of their abilities. The subject of this book - and of the rest of my publications - is not the "management thinking of today". Rather, all my books are practical guides to effectiveness. They point out my personal opinions on different matters, which are often not in sync with mainstream thinking. Management. The Essence of the Craft continues, enlarges upon, and complements my book Managing Performing Living. While the latter deals with the conduct and actions of the individual manager, the present book goes much further in that it deals with the institution as a whole - with system-oriented general management. The book contains a series of propositions which, compared to mainstream thinking, may be regarded as provocative, unusual, and frequently even wrong - at least initially. In this book, and the books to follow, I am putting my arguments forward for discussion. Central Propositions 1.Management is society's most important function. The functioning of society depends on management. Only management turns resources into results. 2.Management can largely be acquired by learning. It is a profession and a craft. It follows the same rules of professionalism that are known and have proven useful in other professions. Talents are useful but not essential. 3.The only kind of management a person needs to learn is right and good management. Right and good management is universal, invariant, and independent of culture. It is equally valid for all kinds of organizations and all countries. There is no need for international, multicultural, or global management. All effective institutions function in the same way. They employ the same functional principles. 4.Apparent differences are not related to management but to the nature of the different tasks to be fulfilled in different organizations. 5.Not everyone can manage just any organization. This is not due to management skills but to the difference in operational tasks. 6.All managers in all organizations and across all hierarchy levels need the same kind of management skills. Not all, however, need them in the same degree of comprehensiveness and detail. Disregarding this principle leads to a lack of orientation and direction, which, in turn, means the end of communication and function. 7.In my view, most of the management ideas prevailing over the past fifteen years or so are false, misleading, and harmful. This is true in particular for anything related to the doctrine of shareholder value and its consequences - such as value-increasing strategies and a way of thinking that focuses predominantly on financial aspects. The stakeholder approach is equally wrong. 8.The economic difficulties of our time, which I believe will inevitably deepen, are largely due to factors other than political errors. They are results of misguided management, of faulty and poor management. As a result, the question as to what right and good management is gains all the more importance. A Word on the Terms Used In management - as opposed to other, more advanced and mature disciplines of learning - there is no such thing as uniform or common parlance. Quite to the contrary: most authors attempt to impress readers by inventing their own terms and slogans. This is a roadblock to progress and to acquiring management skills. For this book, I essentially draw on the terms used in the St. Gallen Management Model, the first and so far only wholistic, system-driven management model, as well as on the linguistic usage of Peter F. Drucker, the doyen of management theory. As far as cybernetics and system sciences are concerned, I draw on the terms used by Stafford Beer, the originator of management cybernetics, and my own book Strategie des Managements komplexer Systeme ["Strategy for the Management of Complex Systems"]. 1.The terms "company", "organization", and "institution" are largely used in the same sense. Certain variances in meaning relate to the degree of generality, or the special limitation to a segment of society. The most general terms are "institution" and "organization". They refer to all organizations existing in a society, no matter what kind or legal form. The term "company", in essence, belongs to the business sector. Whenever no specific pointers are provided, it will be clear from the context what I mean when using each of these terms. The term most frequently used in this book is "company" and other terms related to it, such as "corporate policy". The statements made will generally be applicable to all kinds of institutions. Depending on the field of usage, the terms might need to be adapted somewhat, as in "educational policy" or "health policy". 2.The term "management" itself can be understood in several ways: Firstly, as a function that exists in any kind of organization and is indispensable for its functioning. This is the so-called functional dimension of management. It is neither linked to specific persons nor to organizational elements. This function is not perceptible to our senses. It is incorporated in certain actions taken by individuals and in this way its impact is perceived. Secondly, the term "management" can be understood to be the sum of the legal and/or organizational authorities in an institution. Examples include the executive board of a private company, the executive committee of a public company, a national government, or a university's board of directors. This is referred to as the institutional dimension, and it also includes expanded boards of managers, group management, management circles, or partners' conferences. As far as mandatory and/or higher-level authorities are concerned, the respective responsibilities, rights, obligations, and accountabilities are governed by laws, articles of incorporation, or statutes. Those of other organizational entities are determined by common sense and habits. Thirdly, management can be understood to include the persons that belong to the institutional authorities mentioned. This is the personal dimension of management. In particular the terms "top management" and "top manager" frequently carry that meaning. 3.I use the term "management" in the same meaning as its German equivalent "Führung". Both terms mean the same. In all my German-language publications, I use the two terms synonymously. By contrast, the terms "management" and "leadership" do not mean the same. 4.In the chapter on structure, the term "organization" carries two different meanings: the first, as mentioned above, is what we refer to when we speak of an institution being an organization; the second is what we mean when we speak of an institution having an organization. Which one of the two meanings applies should be clear from the particular context.

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Jews' State - 2843910039

324,41 zł

Jews' State Jason Aronson Inc. Publishers

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

The translator writes: "The Jews' State" is over one hundred years old. The work is both catalyst and prophecy. Catalyst: Speaking both to Jews and to the international community, it virtually launched the modern debate about a modern state for Jews. Prophecy: it foretold the entire scope of this debate, its timing, its spread, its nature, its parameters. It is all there in embryo for us to read and ponder. This little book continues to inform conceptions and arguments about the position on Jews in their state and in the world, and about the relationship between Jews and their fellow human beings. In a very real sense, it still deeply guides how we view the contemporary Middle East. Translated and retranslated countless times and into many languages since it was published, this present translation is one of only three English versions that have been attempted in the century since its first publication, the first in English in twenty-five years. Its concerns are both text and context. Though the text has been with us ever since is publication, it is the context that needs recreating. Among the factors that have created distance between us and the world in which The Jews' State was created include: The experience of the world and the Jewish community during the last century, the salience of anti-Semitism, the Holocaust, the formations and development of the state of Israel, the troubled existence of the Jewish state ever since its inception, the continuing Jewish diaspora and its relationship with the state and world. The common understandings which Theodore Herzl assumed in his readers have dissipated and vanished, and with them a sense of his book's import and impact. These understandings need to be retrieved and recreated. The present edition is therefore an attempt both at presentation and retrieval: Presentation of the text in the language of today: retrieval of the context which gave rise to it. This dual function informs the three main parts of this edition. Its first part is an account of the ideological and social worlds in which Herzl worked and wrote, the Jewish world and the mainstream world, and it argues that Herzl's interaction with both these worlds rests on some complex attitudes on his part in which approval, compliance, critique, and rejection all played a role. There follows a section on The Jews' State itself, which picks up on the main themes that occupied Herzl, and discusses their scope and treatment. This first part finishes with a description of the initial impact of The Jews' State on Herzl's world. The second part of this edition offers a presentation of the text itself, in the form of a translation, which attempts to recreate in a modern idiom the content of the work as well as some of the peculiarities of Herzl's style. The third part of this edition consists of a critical glossary, dealing with some salient issues in translation as well as the explanation of a number of terms and allusions in the text, whose meaning is not immediately obvious to modern readers. The edition closes with a bibliography."

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Modelling and Sculpting Animals - 2844163931

87,44 zł

Modelling and Sculpting Animals Dover Publications

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Symbolism in the sculptural representation of animals-India-Assyria-Egypt-Greece. CHAPTER II THE HORSE Natural History: Cannon - bone-splint bones-teeth-organs of sense-forms. Breeds. The importance of the mouth. Placing the bridle. Paces. Ease and uniformity in the movements. "Rules of motion in the walk, the trot, and the gallop. " The amble. CHAPTER III THE FIRST STAGES IN THE MAKING OF A SMALL MODEL OF A HORSE Importance of an exact model. Armature for the sketch : the iron. Lead piping for legs. Covering armature with first layer of clay. General indictions. Large planes. Measurements of construction. CHAPTER IV COMPARATIVE MEASUREMENTS Colonel Duhousset's the best. The Measurements. Necessity of taking these measurements exactly on the living model. Certain modifications. The Coleoni statude. The necessity of amplifying the legs and detached parts in a statue placed on a high pedestal. CHAPTER V FURTHER STAGES OF THE WORK The movement of the planes. Placing the heads of the bones. Indication of the muscles. Importance of this anatomical work. Enfolding the previous work in the skin. Some points about the skin of the horse. CHAPTER VI SOME SPECIAL POINTS "Fetlock, pastern, and hoof." Tail. Usual names of the different parts of the horse. CHAPTER VII GENERAL PRINCIPLES Amateurs and science. Part which science plays in the progress of art. Opinions of leading authoriities. Dr. Riches-Leonardo da Vinci-Jules Breton-Gerome-Barye-Peiss. Art not mere imitation. The value of study. True personality. Conclusions on the importance of science in the execution of sculptural works. CHAPTER VIII THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE TWO CHASSIS Lengths of the pieces required. Divisions of the side pieces. The parts of each chassis must be at right angles. Height-measures. Measuring-sticks. CHAPTER IX FIXING THE TWO CHASSIS Placing model in the centre of the small chassis. Uprights. Necessity of absolute stability. First method of putting the large chassis in place. Second method. CHAPTER X CONSTRUCTION OF LARGE ARMATURE Stand for large armature. Fixing the iron. How to use the two chassis and the implements. Plumb-lines. Finding the elevation of a given pint- - its distance-its depth. The wooden armature. How it is made. Wood for neck and head. Pieces of iron for legs. The tail. "Butterflies." CHAPTER XI COVERING THE ARMATURE WITH CLAY Thickness of the clay. Where to begin. Fixing of principal points. Covering the irons of the legs. Position of legs. CHAPTER XII THE POINTING The Method. Horizontal lines on model and enlargement. How best to proceed. Example of fixing a given point. Important points on legs not situated on the horizontal lines. Fixing points under the belly. The strength of the armature. Removal of the two chassis. The advantages of this method. A second method. CHAPTER XIII POINTING A RELIEF First method. Second method. CHAPTER XIV ON THE SCULPTURAL PRESENTMENT OF ANIMALS IN GENERAL Importance given to detail in modern sculpture. Its advantages and limitations. Sculpture in monumental art. Necessity of larger treatment. Nature must ever be the the guide. "The value of the compass, of osteology, or myology." Albert Duerer on the Observation of Nature-Sir Joshua Reynolds-Ingres-Carpeaux. The lion especially suitable to decorative art. CHAPTER XV THE LION Natural history. Its walk. Varieties. How to study the lion. The sculptor Barye's interpretation of animals. Stevens. CHAPTER XVI ARMATURE FOR A LION ; MOVEMENT AND CONSTRUCTION The difference between the armature for a lion and that for a horse merely one of size. Position of fore paws. Meaurements of construction. Measurements in the case of a lion measuring 6 feet 3 inches. Comparative measurements. First stage of work. The second stage. The making of a larger lion for decorative purposes. CHAPTER XVII THE BULL Natural history. The teeth. The horns. Breeds. The Assyrian monumental bulls. The Farnese bull of Apollonius. Ancient cameos. The sculptural features of the bull. "CHAPTER XVIII ARMATURE OF THE BULL ; CONSTRUCTION, MEASUREMENTS" Similarity of the principle of the armature for a bull with that for a horse or for a lion. How to establish the measurements of construction from the comparative measurements of the head. "Sculptural treatment of the bull, Measurements of construction."   Comparative measurements. CASTING IN PLASTER I. THE CASTING OF A BUST. Division of the bust. Mixing the plaster. First layer of yellow plaster. Second layer of plaster and irons. Preparation of the edges of the front piece. Back piece of the mould. Opening the mould. Washing the mould. Soaping and oiling the mould. Running in the cast. Chipping off the mould. II. CASTING OF A FIGURE. Bands of clay and first layer (yellow). Placing external irons. Cutting the joins. The back pieces. Opening the mould. Removal of the clay. Soaping and oiling the mould. Internal irons. Running the plaster into the mould. Removing the pieces of the mould. III. THE CASTING OF A HIGH RELIEF. Casting in one piece. Similarity of technical process with that described it I. And II. How to run the plaster into the mould. Consolidating the mould. &nbs

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