krainaksiazek the eighteenth century revolution in spain 20106617
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1776 - Echoes of the American Revolution in the Dukedom of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla GRIN Verlag
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Essay from the year 2012 in the subject History - Miscellaneous, grade: -, Harvard University (GSAS), course: International History, language: English, comment: The first english written essay about the perception of the American Revolution within the little Duchy of Parma. , abstract: This work seeks to better understand how a small and, under a political perspective, seemingly insignificant northern Italian state, the Dukedom of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, became connected to the political and military storm brewing in a far-distant corner of the world called America. The time examined in this essay is the year 1776. During the eighteenth century the Dukedom of Parma depended both economically and politically on the two main Bourbon powers: France and Spain. France and Spain were also the two main allies of the American revolutionaries. Parma was diplomatically represented by Spain, while its only independent diplomatic representation of the small state resided in France. Nonetheless, it would not, at first consideration, seem obvious to find such a wide and detailed amount of information concerning the American Revolution, or about the parliamentary debates taking place in London, in the dukedom s only official means of communication, the Gazzetta di Parma. Indeed, in this period, Parma was arguably the most politically conservative state on the Italian peninsula, one unlikely to be so interested in the talk of rights and freedom being spread by the American Revolution.The primary sources used for this research are mostly unpublished. They are the dispatches from the ambassador of Parma at Versailles to the Parmesan secretary of state, contained in Parma s State Archive (PSA), and editions of the Gazetta di Parma from 1776, contained in the municipal archive.
Habsburg Monarchy, 1490-1848 PALGRAVE MACMILLAN
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
The Habsburg monarchy was a singular experiment in diversity within the European continent. By the eighteenth century it stretched from the Austrian Netherlands to the Balkans and southern Poland, and south into Italy. Its subjects spoke a number of languages, and while the social and institutional structure of these lands shared common features, there were also substantial differences among them. Was the Habsburg monarchy therefore an empire like those of Great Britain, France or Spain? Drawing upon modern theoretical perspectives on European expansion to answer this question, Paula Sutter Fichtner argues that the Habsburg holdings did indeed constitute a form of European imperialism, and that they are best understood in such terms. The Habsburg Monarchy, 1490-1848 - examines the role of the interraction between Habsburg rulers, territorial estates, and religious institutions in the expansion of the empire - explores the reorientation of these relationships under the impact of the European Enlightenment, the rationalization of dynastic government under Empress Maria Theresa and her son, Joseph II, the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and the rise of nationalism - assesses the effect of the Revolutions of 1848 on the strength of the connections between the crown and its nobles, as well as its ties to its ecclesiastical elites and the bourgeoisie - discusses the parallel developments in cultural affairs as the coherence of a world outlook dominated by Catholicism gave way to linguistic and cultural particularism Incorporating the latest research, this broad-ranging study is an essential guide to one of Europe's most powerful and important dynasties.
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