krainaksiazek the image of the jews in greek literature the hellenistic period 20110883
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Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
The volume is the edition of a series of graffiti from a remote cave in Crete. The cave żLatsida ston Keramoż was not well known and was difficult to locate. Although there were reports of archaeological findings on the surface, no official archaeological work has ever been undertaken. The introduction to this volume is divided into two chapters. The first one contains a collection of the described or published Greek inscriptions and graffiti carved or written on the walls, either inside or in the entrances, of natural caves and caverns dated from the fifth century B.C. to the sixth century A.D. The second chapter is an English translation of a paper published in Greek by the speleologists K. Foteinakis and K. Paragamian in the third Pancretan Speleological Symposium. This is included as it will help the reader to understand the natural underground space and environment of the cave. The graffiti are carved or scratched (graffiti) into or written (dipinti) on the flowstones, the walls, the stalagmites or the columns of the cave. About 40 names, masculine or feminine,appear. None of the bearers of the names can be identified with a certain person known from other Cretan inscriptions or literature. The possible origin of the identifiable names in the cave is Crete (mostly cities of the eastern Crete), but other areas, e.g. Thessaly, Boeotia and the Aegean islands, should not be excluded. Based on the internal evidence and the palaeographical details a date that could be assigned to these graffiti is from the first century B.C. until the end of the second century or early third century A.D. The people who inscribed these names were either natives or migrants, who found themselves in this area of Crete for a certain purpose, and found a good reason to spend some time visiting this remote place. They might have been local farmers or/and shepherds or travelers or/and traders or people who were trying to escape from their social condition within the community and/or from its laws, who found shelter in this cave. If the graffiti (or some of the graffiti) are dated to the Hellenistic period in Crete, a second possibility is that all these men could have been members of a garrison or a patrol whose duty was to protect the countryside or the roads from żenemiesż or żoutsidersż. The third possibility concerns the well-known ritual kidnapping of young boysby adults, which has been recorded by Ephorus (cited by Strabo).
Imperialism & Jewish Society Princeton University Press
This provocative new history of Palestinian Jewish society in antiquity marks the first comprehensive effort to gauge the effects of imperial domination on this people. Probing more than eight centuries of Persian, Greek, and Roman rule, Seth Schwartz reaches some startling conclusions--foremost among them that the Christianization of the Roman Empire generated the most fundamental features of medieval and modern Jewish life.Schwartz begins by arguing that the distinctiveness of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic, and early Roman periods was the product of generally prevailing imperial tolerance. From around 70 C.E. to the mid-fourth century, with failed revolts and the alluring cultural norms of the High Roman Empire, Judaism all but disintegrated. However, late in the Roman Empire, the Christianized state played a decisive role in 're-Judaizing' the Jews. The state gradually excluded them from society while supporting their leaders and recognizing their local communities. It was thus in Late Antiquity that the synagogue-centered community became prevalent among the Jews, that there re-emerged a distinctively Jewish art and literature--laying the foundations for Judaism as we know it today.Through masterful scholarship set in rich detail, this book challenges traditional views rooted in romantic notions about Jewish fortitude. Integrating material relics and literature while setting the Jews in their eastern Mediterranean context, it addresses the complex and varied consequences of imperialism on this vast period of Jewish history more ambitiously than ever before. Imperialism in Jewish Society will be widely read and much debated.
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