# krainaksiazek the integration theory of linear ordinary differential equations 20045695

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### Theory of Differential Equations ...: (Vol. IV) Ordinary Linear Equations. 1902

**Książki**

Sklep: KrainaKsiazek.pl

### Ordinary Differential Equations

**Książki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Mathematics & science>Mathematics>Calculus & mathematical analysis>Calculus of variationsKsiążki Obcoję...**

Develops The Theory Of Initial-, Boundary-, And Eigen Value Problems, Real And Complex Linear Systems, Asymptotic Behavior And Stability. This Book Emphasizes Differential Inequalities And Treats More Advanced Topics Such As Caratheodory Theory, Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems And Radially Symmetric Elliptic Problems.

Sklep: Gigant.pl

### Treatise on Linear Differential Equations, Vol. 1 (Classic Reprint) Forgotten Books

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Excerpt from A Treatise on Linear Differential Equations, Vol. 1 The theory of linear differential equations may almost be said to find its origin in Fuchs's two memoirs published in 1866 and 1868 in volumes 66 and 68 of Crelle's Journal. Previous to this the only class of linear differential equations for which a general method of integration was known was the class of equations with constant coefficients, including of course Legendre's well-known equation which is immediately transformable into one with constant coefficients. After the appearance of Fuchs's second memoir many mathematicians, particularly in France and Germany, including Fuchs himself, took up the subject which, though still in its infancy, now possesses a very large literature. This literature, however, is so scattered among the different mathematical journals and publications of learned societies that it is extremely difficult for students to read up the subject properly. I have endeavored in the present treatise to give a by no means complete but, I trust, a sufficient account of the theory as it stands to-day, to meet the needs of students. Full references to original sources arc given in every case. Most of the results in the first two chapters, which deal with the general properties of linear differential equations and with equations having constant coefficients, arc of course old, but the presentation of these properties is comparatively new and is due to such mathematicians as Hermite, Jordan, Darboux, and others. All that follows these two chapters is quite new and constitutes the essential part of the modern theory of linear differential equations. The present volume deals principally with Fuchs's type of equations, i.e. equations whose integrals are all regular: a sufficient account has been given, however, of the researches of Frobenius and Thomé on equations whose integrals arc not all regular. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Introduction to Linear Algebra and Differential Equations Dover Publications

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Preface 1. Complex Numbers 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Algebra of Complex Numbers 1.3 The Geometry of Complex Numbers 1.4 Two-dimensional Vectors 1.5 Functions of a Complex Variable 1.6 Exponential Function 1.7 Power Series 2. Linear Algebraic Equations 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Matrices 2.3 Elimination Method 2.4 Determinants 2.5 Inverse of a Matrix 2.6 Existence and Uniqueness Theorems 3. Vector Spaces 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Three-dimensional Vectors 3.3 Axioms of a Vector Space 3.4 Dependence and Independence of Vectors 3.5 Basis and Dimension 3.6 Scalar Product 3.7 Orthonormal Bases 3.8 Infinite-dimensional Vector Spaces 4. Linear Transformations 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Definitions and Examples 4.3 Matrix Representations 4.4 Changes of Bases 4.5 Characteristic Values and Characteristic Vectors 4.6 Symmetric and Hermitian Matrices 4.7 Jordan Forms 5. First Order Differential Equations 5.1 Introduction 5.2 An Example 5.3 Basic Definitions 5.4 First Order Linear Equations 5.5 First Order Nonlinear Equations 5.6 Applications of First Order Equations 5.7 Numerical Methods 5.8 Existence and Uniqueness 6. Linear Differential Equations 6.1 Introduction 6.2 General Theorems 6.3 Variation of Parameters 6.4 Equations with Constant Coefficients 6.5 Method of Undetermined Coefficients 6.6 Applications 6.7 Green's Functions 7. Laplace Transforms 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Existence of the Transform 7.3 Transforms of Certain Functions 7.4 Inversion of the Transform 7.5 Solution of Differential Equations 7.6 Applications 7.7 Uniqueness of the Transform 8. Power-Series Methods 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Solution near Ordinary Points 8.3 Solution near Regular Singular Points 8.4 Bessel Functions 8.5 Boundary-value Problems 8.6 Convergence Theorems 9. Systems of Differential Equations 9.1 Introduction 9.2 First Order Systems 9.3 Linear First Order Systems 9.4 Linear First Order Systems with Constant Coefficients 9.5 Higher Order Linear Systems 9.6 Existence and Uniqueness Theorem Answers and Hints for Selected Exercises; Index

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### Introduction to Partial Differential Equations Dover Publications

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

Chapter 1. Fourier series 1.1 Basic concepts 1.2 Fourier series and Fourier coefficients 1.3 A mimimizing property of the Fourier coefficients. The Riemann-Lebesgue theorem 1.4 Convergence of Fourier series 1.5 The Parseval formula 1.6 Determination of the sum of certain trigonemetric series Chapter 2. Orthogonal systems 2.1 Integration of complex-valued functions of a real variable 2.2 Orthogonal systems 2.3 Complete orthogonal systems 2.4 Integration of Fourier series 2.5 The Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process 2.6 Sturm-Liouville problems Chapter 3. Orthogonal polynomials 3.1 The Legendre polynomials 3.2 Legendre series 3.3 The Legendre differential equation. The generating function of the Legendre polynomials 3.4 The Tchebycheff polynomials 3.5 Tchebycheff series 3.6 The Hermite polynomials. The Laguerre polynomials Chapter 4. Fourier transforms 4.1 Infinite interval of integration 4.2 The Fourier integral formula: a heuristic introduction 4.3 Auxiliary theorems 4.4 Proof of the Fourier integral formula. Fourier transforms 4.5 The convention theorem. The Parseval formula Chapter 5. Laplace transforms 5.1 Definition of the Laplace transform. Domain. Analyticity 5.2 Inversion formula 5.3 Further properties of Laplace transforms. The convolution theorem 5.4 Applications to ordinary differential equations Chapter 6. Bessel functions 6.1 The gamma function 6.2 The Bessel differential equation. Bessel functions 6.3 Some particular Bessel functions 6.4 Recursion formulas for the Bessel functions 6.5 Estimation of Bessel functions for large values of x. The zeros of the Bessel functions 6.6 Bessel series 6.7 The generating function of the Bessel functions of integral order 6.8 Neumann functions Chapter 7. Partial differential equations of first order 7.1 Introduction 7.2 The differential equation of a family of surfaces 7.3 Homogeneous differential equations 7.4 Linear and quasilinear differential equations Chapter 8. Partial differential equations of second order 8.1 Problems in physics leading to partial differential equations 8.2 Definitions 8.3 The wave equation 8.4 The heat equation 8.5 The Laplace equation Answers to exercises; Bibliography; Conventions; Symbols; Index

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### A First Course in Partial Differential Equations with Complex Variables and Transform Methods Dover Publications

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I. The one-dimensional wave equation 1. A physical problem and its mathematical models: the vibrating string 2. The one-dimensional wave equation 3. Discussion of the solution: characteristics 4. Reflection and the free boundary problem 5. The nonhomogeneous wave equation II. Linear second-order partial differential equations in two variables 6. Linearity and superposition 7. Uniqueness for the vibrating string problem 8. Classification of second-order equations with constant coefficients 9. Classification of general second-order operators III. Some properties of elliptic and parabolic equations 10. Laplace's equation 11. Green's theorem and uniqueness for the Laplace's equation 12. The maximum principle 13. The heat equation IV. Separation of variables and Fourier series 14. The method of separation of variables 15. Orthogonality and least square approximation 16. Completeness and the Parseval equation 17. The Riemann-Lebesgue lemma 18. Convergence of the trigonometric Fourier series 19. "Uniform convergence, Schwarz's inequality, and completeness" 20. Sine and cosine series 21. Change of scale 22. The heat equation 23. Laplace's equation in a rectangle 24. Laplace's equation in a circle 25. An extension of the validity of these solutions 26. The damped wave equation V. Nonhomogeneous problems 27. Initial value problems for ordinary differential equations 28. Boundary value problems and Green's function for ordinary differential equations 29. Nonhomogeneous problems and the finite Fourier transform 30. Green's function VI. Problems in higher dimensions and multiple Fourier series 31. Multiple Fourier series 32. Laplace's equation in a cube 33. Laplace's equation in a cylinder 34. The three-dimensional wave equation in a cube 35. Poisson's equation in a cube VII. Sturm-Liouville theory and general Fourier expansions 36. Eigenfunction expansions for regular second-order ordinary differential equations 37. Vibration of a variable string 38. Some properties of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions 39. Equations with singular endpoints 40. Some properties of Bessel functions 41. Vibration of a circular membrane 42. Forced vibration of a circular membrane: natural frequencies and resonance 43. The Legendre polynomials and associated Legendre functions 44. Laplace's equation in the sphere 45. Poisson's equation and Green's function for the sphere VIII. Analytic functions of a complex variable 46. Complex numbers 47. Complex power series and harmonic functions 48. Analytic functions 49. Contour integrals and Cauchy's theorem 50. Composition of analytic functions 51. Taylor series of composite functions 52. Conformal mapping and Laplace's equation 53. The bilinear transformation 54. Laplace's equation on unbounded domains 55. Some special conformal mappings 56. The Cauchy integral representation and Liouville's theorem IX. Evaluation of integrals by complex variable methods 57. Singularities of analytic functions 58. The calculus of residues 59. Laurent series 60. Infinite integrals 61. Infinite series of residues 62. Integrals along branch cuts X. The Fourier transform 63. The Fourier transform 64. Jordan's lemma 65. Schwarz's inequality and the triangle inequality for infinite integrals 66. Fourier transforms of square integrable functions: the Parseval equation 67. Fourier inversion theorems 68. Sine and cosine transforms 69. Some operational formulas 70. The convolution product 71. Multiple Fourier transforms: the heat equation in three dimensions 72. The three-dimensional wave equation 73. The Fourier transform with complex argument XI. The Laplace transform 74. The Laplace transform 75. Initial value problems for ordinary differential equations 76. Initial value problems for the one-dimensional heat equation 77. A diffraction problem 78. The Stokes rule and Duhamel's principle XII. Approximation methods 79. "Exact" and approximate solutions" 80. The method of finite differences for initial-boundary value problems 81. The finite difference method for Laplace's equation 82. The method of successive approximations 83. The Raleigh-Ritz method SOLUTIONS TO THE EXERCISES INDEX

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Surveys in Differential-Algebraic Equations I Springer, Berlin

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The need for a rigorous mathematical theory for Differential-Algebraic Equations (DAEs) has its roots in the widespread applications of controlled dynamical systems, especially in mechanical and electrical engineering. Due to the strong relation to (ordinary) differential equations, the literature for DAEs mainly started out from introductory textbooks.§As such, the present monograph is new in the sense that it comprises survey articles on various fields of DAEs, providing reviews, presentations of the current state of research and new concepts in§- Controllability for linear DAEs§- Port-Hamiltonian differential-algebraic systems§- Robustness of DAEs§- Solution concepts for DAEs§- DAEs in circuit modeling.§The results in the individual chapters are presented in an accessible style, making this book suitable not only for active researchers but also for graduate students (with a good knowledge of the basic principles of DAEs) for self-study.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### From Elementary Probability to Stochastic Differential Equations with MAPLE Springer, Berlin

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The authors provide a fast introduction to probabilistic and statistical concepts necessary to understand the basic ideas andmethods of stochastic differential equations. The book is based on measure theory which is introduced as smoothly as possible. It is intended for advanced undergraduate students or graduates, not necessarily in mathematics, providing an overview and intuitive background for more advanced studies as well as some practical skills in the use of MAPLE in the context of probability and its applications. As prerequisites the authors assume a familiarity with basic calculus and linear algebra, as well as with elementary ordinary differential equations and, in the final chapter, simple numerical methods for such ODEs. Although statistics is not systematically treated, they introduce statistical concepts such as sampling, estimators, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, significance levels and p-values and use them in a large number of examples, problems and simulations.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Introduction to Partial Differential Equations Springer, Berlin

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

This is the softcover reprint of a popular book teaching the basic analytical and computational methods of partial differential equations. Standard topics such as separation of variables, Fourier analysis, maximum principles, and energy estimates are included. Prerequisites for this text are the very basics of calculus, linear algebra and ordinary differential equations. Numerical methods are included in the book to show the significance of computations in partial differential equations, and to illustrate the strong interaction between mathematical theory and numerical methods. Great care has been taken throughout the book to seek a sound balance between the analytical and numerical techniques. The authors present the material at an easy pace with exercises and projects ranging from the straightforward to the challenging. The text would be suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in mathematics and engineering, and it develops basic tools of computational science.

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### Linear Integral Equations Dover Publications

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

I. Introductory II. Solution of Integral Equation of Second Kind by Successive Substitutions III. Solution of Fredholm

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### Linear algebra Politechnika Gdańska

**MATEMATYKA**

Podręcznik dla studentów Politechniki Gdańskiej, którzy zamierzają pogłębić wiedzie z zakresu algebry liniowej w języku angielskim. Spis treści: 1. BEATRICES 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Some types of matrices 1.3. Equal matrices 1.4. Matrix addition 1.5. Scalar multiplication 1.6. Transpose of a matrix 1.7. Symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices 1.8. Matrix multiplication 1.9. The trace of a square matrix 1.10. Exercises 1.11. Answers 2. DETERMINANTS 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Properties of determinants 2.3. Exercises 2.4. Answers 3. INVERTIBLE MATRICES 3.1. Introduction 3.2. A method of obtaining the inverse of a square matrix 3.3. Exercises 3.4. Answers 4. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Cramer's theorem 4.3. Method of matrix inversion 4.4. Method of Gaussian elimination 4.5. The rank of a matrix 4.6. Fundamental theorem for systems of linear equations 4.7. Application of Gaussian elimination to find the inverse of a matrix 4.8. Exercises 4.9. Answers 5. EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors 5.3. Symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices 5.4. Useful properties 5.5. Application to ordinary differential equations 5.6. Case of repeated roots 5.7. Nonhomogeneous equation. Variation of parameters 5.8. Undetermined coefficients 5.9. Exercises 5.10. Answers REFERENCES

Sklep: ksiegarnia.edu.pl

### Algebraic and Algorithmic Aspects of Differential and Integral Operators Springer, Berlin

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Meeting on Algebraic and Algorithmic Aspects of Differential and Integral Operators, AADIOS 2012, held at the Applications of Computer Algebra Conference in Sofia, Bulgaria, on June 25-28, 2012. The total of 9 papers presented in this volume consists of 2 invited papers and 7 regular papers which were carefully reviewed and selected from 13 submissions. The topics of interest are: symbolic computation for operator algebras, factorization of differential/integral operators, linear boundary problems and green's operators, initial value problems for differential equations, symbolic integration and differential galois theory, symbolic operator calculi, algorithmic D-module theory, rota-baxter algebra, differential algebra, as well as discrete analogs and software aspects of the above.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### Energy Flow Theory of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems with Applications Springer, Berlin

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This monograph develops a generalised energy flow theory to investigate non-linear dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations in phase space and often met in various science and engineering fields. Important nonlinear phenomena such as, stabilities, periodical orbits, bifurcations and chaos are tack-led and the corresponding energy flow behaviors are revealed using the proposed energy flow approach. As examples, the common interested nonlinear dynamical systems, such as, Duffing's oscillator, Van der Pol's equation, Lorenz attractor, Rössler one and SD oscillator, etc, are discussed. This monograph lights a new energy flow research direction for nonlinear dynamics. A generalised Matlab code with User Manuel is provided for readers to conduct the energy flow analysis of their nonlinear dynamical systems. Throughout the monograph the author continuously returns to some examples in each chapter to illustrate the applications of the discussed theory and approaches. The book can be used as an undergraduate or graduate textbook or a comprehensive source for scientists, researchers and engineers, providing the statement of the art on energy flow or power flow theory and methods.§

Sklep: Libristo.pl

### The Mathematics of Classical and Quantum Physics Dover Publications

**Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna**

VOLUME ONE 1 Vectors in Classical Physics Introduction 1.1 Geometric and Algebraic Definitions of a Vector 1.2 The Resolution of a Vector into Components 1.3 The Scalar Product 1.4 Rotation of the Coordinate System: Orthogonal Transformations 1.5 The Vector Product 1.6 A Vector Treatment of Classical Orbit Theory 1.7 Differential Operations on Scalar and Vector Fields *1.8 Cartesian-Tensors 2 Calculus of Variations Introduction 2.1 Some Famous Problems 2.2 The Euler-Lagrange Equation 2.3 Some Famous Solutions 2.4 Isoperimetric Problems - Constraints 2.5 Application to Classical Mechanics 2.6 Extremization of Multiple Integrals 2.7 Invariance Principles and Noether's Theorem 3 Vectors and Matrics Introduction 3.1 "Groups, Fields, and Vector Spaces" 3.2 Linear Independence 3.3 Bases and Dimensionality 3.4 Ismorphisms 3.5 Linear Transformations 3.6 The Inverse of a Linear Transformation 3.7 Matrices 3.8 Determinants 3.9 Similarity Transformations 3.10 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors *3.11 The Kronecker Product 4. Vector Spaces in Physics Introduction 4.1 The Inner Product 4.2 Orthogonality and Completeness 4.3 Complete Ortonormal Sets 4.4 Self-Adjoint (Hermitian and Symmetric) Transformations 4.5 Isometries-Unitary and Orthogonal Transformations 4.6 The Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Self-Adjoint and Isometric Transformations 4.7 Diagonalization 4.8 On The Solvability of Linear Equations 4.9 Minimum Principles 4.10 Normal Modes 4.11 Peturbation Theory-Nondegenerate Case 4.12 Peturbation Theory-Degenerate Case 5. Hilbert Space-Complete Orthonormal Sets of Functions Introduction 5.1 Function Space and Hilbert Space 5.2 Complete Orthonormal Sets of Functions 5.3 The Dirac d-Function 5.4 Weirstrass's Theorem: Approximation by Polynomials 5.5 Legendre Polynomials 5.6 Fourier Series 5.7 Fourier Integrals 5.8 Sphereical Harmonics and Associated Legendre Functions 5.9 Hermite Polynomials 5.10 Sturm-Liouville Systems-Orthogaonal Polynomials 5.11 A Mathematical Formulation of Quantum Mechanics VOLUME TWO 6 Elements and Applications of the Theory of Analytic Functions Introduction 6.1 Analytic Functions-The Cauchy-Riemann Conditions 6.2 Some Basic Analytic Functions 6.3 Complex Integration-The Cauchy-Goursat Theorem 6.4 Consequences of Cauchy's Theorem 6.5 Hilbert Transforms and the Cauchy Principal Value 6.6 An Introduction to Dispersion Relations 6.7 The Expansion of an Analytic Function in a Power Series 6.8 Residue Theory-Evaluation of Real Definite Integrals and Summation of Series 6.9 Applications to Special Functions and Integral Representations 7 Green's Function Introduction 7.1 A New Way to Solve Differential Equations 7.2 Green's Functions and Delta Functions 7.3 Green's Functions in One Dimension 7.4 Green's Functions in Three Dimensions 7.5 Radial Green's Functions 7.6 An Application to the Theory of Diffraction 7.7 Time-dependent Green's Functions: First Order 7.8 The Wave Equation 8 Introduction to Integral Equations Introduction 8.1 Iterative Techniques-Linear Integral Operators 8.2 Norms of Operators 8.3 Iterative Techniques in a Banach Space 8.4 Iterative Techniques for Nonlinear Equations 8.5 Separable Kernels 8.6 General Kernels of Finite Rank 8.7 Completely Continuous Operators 9 Integral Equations in Hilbert Space Introduction 9.1 Completely Continuous Hermitian Operators 9.2 Linear Equations and Peturbation Theory 9.3 Finite-Rank Techniques for Eigenvalue Problems 9.4 the Fredholm Alternative for Completely Continuous Operators 9.5 The Numerical Solutions of Linear Equations 9.6 Unitary Transformations 10 Introduction to Group Theory Introduction 10.1 An Inductive Approach 10.2 The Symmetric Groups 10.3 "Cosets, Classes, and Invariant Subgroups" 10.4 Symmetry and Group Representations 10.5 Irreducible Representations 10.6 "Unitary Representations, Schur's Lemmas, and Orthogonality Relations" 10.7 The Determination of Group Representations 10.8 Group Theory in Physical Problems General Bibliography Index to Volume One Index to Volume Two

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### C++ and Object-Oriented Numeric Computing for Scientists and Engineers Springer, Berlin

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This new text/reference presents an accessible, concise, but rather complete, introduction to the C++ programming language with special emphasis on object-oriented numeric computation for scientific and engineering program development. The description of the language is in compliance with ISO/ANSI standards and is platform independent for maximum versatility. Requiring only basic calculus and linear algebra as prerequisites, the book introduces concepts, techniques, and standard libraries of C++ in a manner that is easy to understand and uses such familiar examples as vectors, matrices, integrals, and complex numbers. It also contains an introduction to C++ programs for applications with many numeric methods that are fundamental to science and engineering computing: polynomial evaluation and interpolation; numeric integration; methods for solving nonlinear equations; systems of linear equations in full, band, an d sparse matrix storage formats and ordinary and partial differential equations. Numerous techniques and examples are provided on how to reduce (C and Fortran) run-time overhead and improve program efficiency.This new text/reference presents an accessible, concise, but rather complete, introduction to the C++ programming language with special emphasis on object-oriented numeric computation for scientific and engineering program development. The description of the language is in compliance with ISO/ANSI standards and is platform independent for maximum versatility.Requiring only basic calculus and linear algebra as prerequisites, the book introduces concepts, techniques, and standard libraries of C++ in a manner that is easy to understand and uses such familiar examples as vectors, matrices, integrals, and complex numbers. It also contains an introduction to C++ programs for applications with many numeric methods that are fundamental to science and engineering computing: polynomial evaluation and interpolation; numeric integration; methods for solving nonlinear equations; systems of linear equations in full, band, and sparse matrix storage formats; and ordinary and partial differential equations. Numerous techniques and examples are provided on how to reduce (C and Fortran) run-time overhead and improve program efficiency.

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