krainaksiazek the weight of the social economy an international perspective 20049780

- znaleziono 20 produkty w 5 sklepach

The Emergence Of The Social Economy In Public Policy L'emergence De L'economie Sociale Dans Les Politiques Publiques - 2846076664

229,99 zł

The Emergence Of The Social Economy In Public Policy L'emergence De L'economie Sociale Dans Les Politiques Publiques

Książki Obcojęzyczne>Nieprzypisane

After A General Analysis Of Public Policies Concerning The Social Economy, Its Key Features, Objectives And Pattern Of Evolution, This Book Provides A Supranational And International Approach From Both A European Perspective (examining The Policies Of Eur

Sklep: Gigant.pl

Moral Economy of the State - 2826755293

195,86 zł

Moral Economy of the State Ohio University Monographs in International...

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

The Moral Economy of the State examines state formation in Zimbabwe from the colonial period through the first decade of independence. Drawing on the works of Gramsci, E. P. Thompson, and James Scott, William Munro develops a theory of "moral economy" that explores negotiations between rural citizens and state agents over legitimate state incursions in social life. This analysis demonstrates how states try to shape the meanings of citizenship for agrarian populations by redefining conceptions of the public good, property rights, and community membership. The book's focus on the moral economy of the state offers a refreshing perspective on the difficulties experienced by postcolonial African states in building stronger state and rural institutions.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Social Revolutions in Small States - 2844568601

499,44 zł

Social Revolutions in Small States VDM Verlag Dr. Müller

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

This study compares and analyzes the causes of Social Revolutions in five case studies spanning two centuries from a state-centered historical perspective. The case studies are Haiti (1791-1804), Bavaria (1918), Hungary (1918), Cuba (1956-9), and Guinea-Bissau(1963-74). The study has modified a framework devised by Theda Skocpol (1979) focusing on a conjuction of the following variables: state-breakdown,international environment, the economy, social structure,and local politics. I have added the distinctive features of small states. The argument is that small states are unique, and their revolutions can not be adequately explained by analyses of France, Russia, or China. The importance of leaders and domestic politics in spite of the political and economic dependence of small states stand out through this approach as key causal variables that are generally not discussed in other studies. Also, small states are often able to influence the international system as much it influences them. This book takes the reader on a journey to distant and fascinating places during perilous times, when the best and the worst in humans comes out.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Stosunki Międzynarodowe nr 2 Tom 51 - 2825883618

18,70 zł

Stosunki Międzynarodowe nr 2 Tom 51 Scholar

Książki

T U D I A [S T U D I E S]Edward Haliżak: Obszar badawczy nauki o stosunkach międzynarodowych [The Scope of the Discipline of International Relations], doi: 10.7366/020909612201501, s. 9?36;Jakub Zajączkowski: Strategie morskie Indii, Chin i USA w regionie Oceanu Indyjskiego: analiza w kategoriach realizmu ofensywnego [ Maritime Strategies of India, China and the United States in the Indian Ocean Region: An Analysis Based on Offesive Realism], doi: 10.7366/020909612201502, s. 37?70;Marcin Florian Gawrycki: Latynoamerykańska ekonomia polityczna stosunków międzynarodowych ? studium endemicznej myśli [Latin American Political Economy of International Relations ? a Study of Endemic Thought], doi: 10.7366/020909612201503, s. 71?92;Charles F. Doran: Imperatives of European Security at Russia?s Critical Point on its Power Cycle, doi: 10.7366/020909612201504, s. 93?106;Mat thew McCartney: From Problems to Policy: Sustaining Growth and Public Services after the Global Financial Crisis in India and Pakistan, doi: 10.7366/020909612201505, s. 107?136;Marek Madej: Spóźniony (i krótkotrwały) entuzjazm. Polska wobec Wspólnej Polityki Bezpieczeństwa i Obrony w latach 2008?2014 [ Belated (and Short-Lived) Enthusiasm. Poland vis-a-vis the Common (European) Security and Defence Policy in 2008?2014], doi: 10.7366/020909612201506, s. 137?152;Paula Marcinkowska: The European Union as a Regional Power and Its Potential to Become an Effective Global Player, doi: 10.7366/020909612201507, s. 153?166;Maria Dunin-Wąsowicz: Kwestia walutowa a TTIP w perspektywie międzynarodowej ekonomii politycznej. Rok 2015 [The Monetary Issue and TTIP in International Political Economy Perspective. Year 2015], doi: 10.7366/020909612201508, s. 167?188;Anna Wróbel: Uwarunkowania negocjacji rolnych TTIP [Determinants of TTIP Negotiations on Agriculture], doi: 10.7366/020909612201509, s. 189?214;Rafał Ulatowski: Znaczenie czynnika energetycznego w stosunkach międzynarodowych: studium przypadku w negocjacjach TTIP [Cooperation in the Energy Sector in TTIP Negotiations], doi: 10.7366/020909612201510, s. 215?230;Małgorzata Grącik-Zajaczkowski: Kwestie społeczne w negocjacjach nad utworzeniem Transatlantyckiego Partnerstwa w dziedzinie Handlu i Inwestycji [Social Issues in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Negotiations], doi: 10.7366/020909612201511, s. 231?254;Jarosław Adamowski: Instytucje oceny skutków regulacji w Stanach Zjednoczonych i Unii Europejskiej w kontekście negocjacji nad TTIP [Regulatory Impact Assessment Institutions in the United States and the European Union in the Context of TTIP Negotiations], doi: 10.7366/020909612201512, s. 255?280;Aleksandra Jarczewska: Wspólnota Transatlantycka w systemie międzynarodowym [The Transatlantic Community in the International System], doi: 10.7366/020909612201513, s. 281?304;Jacek Kosiarski: Deutschland, Mitteleuropa und die Revolutionierung Russlands [Germany, Mitteleuropa and the Revolutionising of Russia], doi: 10.7366/020909612201514, s. 305?352;Maria Pasztor, Dariusz Jarosz: Stosunki polsko-francuskie 1986?1989 [Polish-French relations in the years 1986?1989], doi: 10.7366/020909612201515, s. 353?366.

Sklep: Booknet.net.pl

Understanding the Chinese Economies - 2843503814

190,58 zł

Understanding the Chinese Economies ACADEMIC PRESS

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

China's economic growth has been more robust in some regions than others. In a country as large as China, examinations of regional differences can provide a viable way to learn about the economy as a whole. Rongxing Guo provides a systematic introduction to the economies of China by describing their external and internal drivers and by placing them within geopolitical and even socio-cultural boundaries. His pairings of case studies and empirical techniques reveal a rich, deep appreciation of the growth process and of interactions between key factors. This book delves more deeply into issues surrounding the economy than other books, offering a unique and important perspective that many will find useful. Covering history and administrative structures, unique economic features, some domestic economic issues, and international economic engagement, it describes an often inaccessible perspective with nuances all students of China will find valuable. This title introduces China's regional economies, often overlooked in US and European texts within larger contexts of social and geopolitical concerns. It explains the reform process since 1978 in a comprehensive, non-technical, and accessible manner. It includes online ancillaries of documents, links, and more, expanding the text and keeping it up-to-date. It features case studies in each chapter.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Socialist Way - 2845527617

79,66 zł

Socialist Way I B TAURIS

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

In 2010, the Labour Party of Great Britain suffered its worst General Election defeat since the 1930s (with one exception), bringing to an end thirteen years of New Labour government. Since then, the debate over both the legacy of New Labour and the future direction of the party has been widespread, yet so far there has been little consideration from a social democratic perspective. The chapters in this book cover a wide range of issues and provide new perspectives in the areas of economic, social and foreign policy with a central focus on the defence of the state. The chapters on the economy put forward a strategy for economic growth through industrial democracy and collective ownership, whilst in terms of social policy a more radical agenda than New Labour's is advocated, underpinned by stronger notions of social justice, equality and welfare rights. In the context of growing nationalist sentiments and calls for Scottish independence, this book sets out the importance of central state activity, the promotion of a public service ethos and civil liberties and a social democratic approach to the increasingly important issue of national identity. Finally, it sets out an alternative agenda on foreign and defence policy including the promotion of international development and human rights and a reformed Europe. Containing high-profile contributions from journalists, academics, policy-makers and think tanks, The Socialist Way provides new directions for electoral success and argues that there is not a trade-off between power and principle.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Exceptional People - 2826857248

110,27 zł

Exceptional People University Press Group Ltd

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Throughout history, migrants have fueled the engine of human progress. Their movement has sparked innovation, spread ideas, relieved poverty, and laid the foundations for a global economy. In a world more interconnected than ever before, the number of people with the means and motivation to migrate will only increase. Exceptional People provides a long-term and global perspective on the implications and policy options for societies the world over. Challenging the received wisdom that a dramatic growth in migration is undesirable, the book proposes new approaches for governance that will embrace this international mobility. The authors explore the critical role of human migration since humans first departed Africa some fifty thousand years ago - how the circulation of ideas and technologies has benefited communities and how the movement of people across oceans and continents has fueled economies. They show that migrants in today's world connect markets, fill labor gaps, and enrich social diversity. Migration also allows individuals to escape destitution, human rights abuses, and repressive regimes. However, the authors indicate that most current migration policies are based on misconceptions and fears about migration's long-term contributions and social dynamics. Future policies, for good or ill, will dramatically determine whether societies can effectively reap migration's opportunities while managing the risks of the twenty-first century. A guide to vigorous debate and action, "Exceptional People" charts the past and present of international migration and makes practical recommendations that will allow everyone to benefit from its unstoppable future growth.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Karl Polanyi's "Great Transformation" and Development Politics - 2837309928

85,75 zł

Karl Polanyi's "Great Transformation" and Development Politics GRIN Verlag

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Essay from the year 2006 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Development Politics, grade: 1,3 (A- in the American system), University of California, Berkeley (Department of Political Science), course: Course in development politics (Prof. Kiren Chaudhry), 5 entries in the bibliography, language: English, comment: The essay gives a concise overview of Polanyi's central arguments, compares them to a Marxist approach and tries to evaluate Polanyi's importance for contemporary development thinking. Very good also for every general discussion about Polanyi. , abstract: Attempts to understand the transformation processes in the developing world have often led to a closer examination of Europe s and America s own history, as many theories of development suggest a specific interpretation of these histories: Modernization theorists, for example, see Europe s and America s history mainly as a straightforward progression towards welfare and democracy, eclipsing the aspects that do not fit into this picture, like the World Wars or the American Civil War. Therefore, although Karl Polanyi s "The Great Transformation" treats mainly historical events in Europe, it can at the same time be an important contribution to our understanding of the economic and social transformations in the developing world. In this essay, I will first try to make clear, what assumptions underlie Polanyi s argument and what he means by the notion of "market society". I will proceed in three steps: first, I will explore the different roles that the economy, according to Polanyi, plays in capitalist and pre-capitalist societies; I will look then at the historical processes that led to the rise of a "market society". Finally, I will discuss the political reactions to these processes which can be characterized, in Polanyi s view, by a "double movement".§As Polanyi is one of the most important critics of economic liberalism, it is helpful to compare his account of the "Great Transformation" to a second, even more influential anti-liberal perspective, Marxism. Apart from some similarities, the fundamental difference seems to be that Polanyi does not give a positive account of modernization. This leads to the question, how Polanyi s theories can improve our understanding of development today. I will mainly argue that although Polanyi gives an impressive account of the limits of a market economy, his treatment of politics is much too loose to be convincing.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

The Third Reich: A New History - 2844392522

127,42 zł

The Third Reich: A New History Simon & Schuster

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

A Major Study of One of the Twentieth Century's Darkest Periods Until now there has been no up-to-date, one-volume, international history of Nazi Germany, despite its being among the most studied phenomena of our time. The Third Reich restores a broad perspective and intellectual unity to issues that have become academic subspecialties and offers a brilliant new interpretation of Hitler's evil rule. Filled with human and moral considerations that are missing from theoretical accounts, Michael Burleigh's book gives full weight to the experience of ordinary people who were swept up in, or repelled by, Hitler's movement and emphasizes international themes-for Nazi Germany appealed to many European nations, and its wartime conduct included efforts to dominate the Continental economy and involved gigantic population transfers and exterminations, recruitment of foreign labor, and multinational armies.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Energy Security of the European Union and Russia: A relationship of interdependence - 2826855108

100,50 zł

Energy Security of the European Union and Russia: A relationship of interdependence GRIN Verlag

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Eastern Europe, grade: 9 out of 10, Maastricht University (Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences), course: Module D - Traid and Aid - European Studies, Specialisation in International Politics of the European Union, language: English, abstract: Energy security is a topic with growing importance on the global political agendas. Within the European Union (EU) the consideration of supply security is of particular significance as the member states depend on outside sources, meaning principally oil and gas, to satisfy their need of energy. The EU-27 was dependent on oil imports on 82.6% and on gas imports on 60.3% in 2007. Own resources are not sufficient and in the present days the EU merely covers 46.9% of the energy consumption by its own means. When the current trends proceed the EU will be dependent on 90% for oil, 70% for gas and 100% for coal in years 2030-40.Therefore, the role of producer countries becomes increasingly important, especially regarding Russia as it is the biggest importer to the EU in crude oil, gas and hard coal. The supply dependence on Russia could have severe consequences for the EU as gas disruptions leading to supply crises in several member states like in 2006 and 2009 had already shown.But also the Russian Federation is dependent because the EU is one of the most important consumers of its gas and oil exports. Russia s economy is reliant on oil and gas production; in 2007 the energy sector generated about 64% of its exports revenues. Accordingly, Russia also has to deal with the problem of energy security, but in the perspective that it aims at securing demand and the purchase of its gas and oil resources, especially by the EU.As both parties depend on each other in their energy security there is a case of interdependence in the EU-Russian energy relationship. When examining this relation of interdependence it is interesting not just to regard the present state of affairs but also the trends and future development and how the EU and Russia deal with that. For the analysis the notions of sensitivity and vulnerability are used. The guiding research question of this paper is therefore: What is the degree of sensitivity and vulnerability for the EU and Russia regarding their relation of interdependence in energy security? It is hypothesized that the Russian Federation is more vulnerable, especially on the subject of its political strategy.The concept of interdependence by Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye provides the theoretical basis for this paper. In order to conclude this paper, the degrees of sensitivity and vulnerability of the actors are evaluated and the hypothesis is proven right or wrong.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Soap Opera - 2826695771

353,90 zł

Soap Opera Polity Press

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

The soap opera is a major form of media art and popular culture. Revered and reviled by fans and critics, its history spans and reflects social change and plays a vital role in the development of broadcasting. This book traces the genre from its beginnings on American radio in the 1930s to the international television genre it has become today. While concentrating on British soap operas, it also discusses the influence of their American and Australian counterparts. This is the first book to consider the soap opera within the economy of broadcasting; it includes a chapter based on interviews with leading broadcasting executives who give their analysis of the importance of the soap opera to their industry. The perspective of television producers as well as the views of audiences are also taken into account. Accessibly written, Soap Opera links the genre to both its media and its literary heritage, and argues that soap operas cross international boundaries through the universal appeal of their characters and their stories. It will be of particular interest to students of media and cultural studies, literary studies, sociology and television production courses, as well as to professionals in the television industry.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

2003 Federal Budget - 2826881510

195,86 zł

2003 Federal Budget Queen's University

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

The 2003 Federal Budget was the first for a new Minister of Finance who was running for higher office and likely the last of an outgoing long-time Prime Minister. It thus represents the outcome of many conflicting tensions within a context of a rapidly changing political, economic and international environment. The papers in this volume, arising from an April 2003 conference on the Budget, examine the political context and economic context informing the Budget, and quantitatively evaluate the impact of the overall Budget package on the Canadian economy, the different economic regions and the fiscal health of public accounts. On the one hand are political pressures for long-term legacy commitments, while on the other is the fiscal reality of a slowdown in growth of the Canadian economy and the immediacy of public resources to be devoted to health and to post-9/11 security concerns. Specific attention is devoted to fiscal aspects of Kyoto, health and social policy, and tax changes from the current and longer-run perspective. The volume also looks at recent changes in budgetary accounting practices brought in with this Budget (full accrual accounting) and changes in transparency in recent years' budgets.

Sklep: Libristo.pl

Solving Disputes For Regional Cooperation And Development In The South China Sea - 2839916060

519,99 zł

Solving Disputes For Regional Cooperation And Development In The South China Sea

Książki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Society & social sciences>Politics & government>International relations>Geopolitics

This Book Discusses The South China Sea Dispute From A Chinese Perspective With Regards To History, Law, International Politics, The Economy, Diplomacy And Military Affairs. Not Only Does It Detail China's Official Position On The Sovereignty And Maritime

Sklep: Gigant.pl

Hobo - Krzysztof Baranowski - 2836996066

27,52 zł

Hobo - Krzysztof Baranowski

Książki & Multimedia > Książki

Opis - Hobo- to inaczej łazik, amerykański włóczęga, który często wędruje tylko dlatego, że czuje potrzebę ruchu, stałej zmiany otoczenia. Hobo i tramp to określenia z czasów Londona, z tym że tramp nigdy nie hańbił się pracą, natomiast hobo pracy szukał, pracował, a potem wracał na szlak. Nie tak dawno jeszcze szlakiem dla łazików była linia kolejowa, dziś większość jeździ autostopem, z większym lub mniejszym szczęściem, po wszystkich zakątkach Ameryki.To debiut literacki autora, który w czasach, gdy w Polsce trudno było podróżować, cieszył się wielką poczytnością. Wznawiamy go w Bibliotece Szkoły pod Żaglami, by pokazać pierwociny literackie późniejszego Kapitana. Nazwa - Hobo Autor - Krzysztof Baranowski Oprawa - Twarda Wydawca - Fundacja Szkoła pod Żaglami Krzysztofa Baranowskiego Kod ISBN - 9788362039098 Kod EAN - 9788362039098 Wydanie - 3 Rok wydania - 2013 Język - polski Seria wydawnicza - Bibl.Szkoły pod Żaglami Format - 17.3x24.5cm Ilość stron - 144 Podatek VAT - 5% Premiera - 2015-06-11

Sklep: InBook.pl

Management - The Essence of the Craft - 2826820823

195,38 zł

Management - The Essence of the Craft Campus Verlag GmbH

Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna

Author's Preface to the English Edition 2010 In this book I am presenting a new kind of management for a new kind of world. It is my concept of right and good management for functioning organizations in functioning societies of exceeding complexity. The need for such a concept arises because conventional management - by which, basically, I mean the US-type management theory and practice now applied worldwide - has come to its very limits as it is unable to deal with the consequences of its own success. The result of its tremendous achievements is a world of inextricably interrelated dynamic systems which are incomprehensibly complex. This has largely been ignored by the dominating US management approach because it was never designed for such conditions. It now fails exactly for this reason, thereby causing the present crisis. I have actually been predicting this for years in many of my publications, including the German version of this book which was first published in 2005. The fact that success almost inevitably breeds its own failure is often overlooked, although it is well known in many fields and in particular in those that accept complexity explicitly as their research subject such as biology or ecology. Albert Einstein already remarked that one cannot solve problems with the same methods which produced them. Failure to manage complexity as the major cause of the worldcrisis What, at present, a majority - at least in the West - considers to be a mere financial crisis can probably be much better understood if it is looked at from an altogether different perspective: the failure to understand and manage complexity. Business and society seem to be undergoing one of the most fundamental transformations in history. Only on the surface, and only if perceived in conventional categories, do present changes appear to be financial and economic in nature. What is happening might better be understood as an Old World dying because a New World is being born. There will hardly be any bridges back to the old state of affairs. Perhaps the most practical premise to navigate by is that whatever can change will change. If so, we are witnessing no less than the almost complete collapse of the formerly so efficient US management approach, which was developed mainly in the context of business administration and taught in business schools as the ultimate wisdom with regard to the running of corporations in a world where its premises applied to an ever lesser degree. Its realities have already been changing for quite some time but this went largely unnoticed because most people tend to see only the old familiar patterns in the new realities. We are experiencing in particular the failure of the US-type of corporate governance and the kind of top management which is dominated almost exclusively by financial variables only. We see the collapse of the shareholder value approach, which due to its short term profit orientation is largely ignoring the customer and is hostile to future-oriented investing and innovating, thereby systematically misdirecting the allocation of societal resources. The failure of the US-approach is, among other aspects, the consequence of mistaking financial investment for real investment, thereby undermining the former strengths of the US-economy, of confusing mountains of bad debts with sustainable wealth, and of failing to distinguish between healthy and pathological growth. Ironically, what collapsed first was the financial system which appeared to be the most highly developed and sophisticated system ever designed. It was believed to be free of systemic risk by most experts and run by the world's most excellent executives educated in what were thought to be the best universities and business schools worldwide. However, complex systems have properties and laws of their own. Their driving forces - if systematically ignored - make them inevitably go out of control. Such systems are incomputable and unpredictable in principle and incomprehensible to the conventionally educated mind. They are non-linear, self-dynamic and continuously self-changing and self-restructuring in unforeseeable ways. They are largely self-organizing and self-regulating. Nevertheless, they can be - up to a degree - controlled and regulated albeit only by a fundamentally different kind of thinking, a new approach for managing complexity and by applying the right methods and tools which are the subject of this book and its companion volumes. Reliable Functioning by Wholistic Management Systems Economic and financial measures on the macro level alone will hardly cure the crisis. What it takes on the level of societal institutions is a new way of functioning which is described in my six volume series Management: Mastering Complexity in which I present my Malik Wholistic General Management Systems. This first volume contains an overview of the system as a whole whereas the other five volumes will describe the constitutive parts of the system. The second volume "Corporate Policy and Governance: How Organizations Self-Organize", was published in 2008 in German and will be available in English soon. The third volume on strategy is still due in 2010. The remaining three volumes will be dedicated to the new structure for functioning complex organizations, their appropriate culture and the kind of executives who have to be able to understand and master complexity. Together these six volumes will contain the essence of the most comprehensive General Management System worldwide. To the best of my knowledge my Wholistic General Management Systems are globally the only ones explicitly designed to ensure reliable functioning under conditions of exceedingly high and dynamic complexity. For this reason and because my Management Systems are universally applicable conventional business administration plays a limited role in my book. For practical reasons, however, I am going to illustrate the application of my systems mainly in the context of the business enterprise. Familiar concepts and terms are left unchanged wherever possible in order to avoid confusion for the practitioner whereas their meaning and most contents are new and different. The important new knowledge for mastering complex systems does not come from economics or business administration but from what I call the Complexity Sciences, i.e. Systemics, Bionics and Cybernetics, which can also be called the Sciences of Functioning. For the term "Functioning" I often use the synonym "Right and Good Management" as opposed to wrong and bad management. By this I want to point to the need to understand management as a true profession with its own standards of craftsmanship as indicated in the subtitle of this book. If the institutions of today's and more so of tomorrow's societies are supposed to function, management needs to liberate itself from fashions and fads and has to become a profession of the same status as for example the profession of the surgeon, the aircraft pilot or the lawyer all of which have as a matter of course their standards of professionalism. The foundation for a profession of effective management for functioning institutions is to be found in my earlier book Managing Performing Living. My General Management Systems - with the support of the experts of my own organization - have been developed, tested and implemented in numerous cases over more than 30 years in all sorts of institutions in business and non-business areas mostly in Europe and particularly in the German speaking world including their worldwide subsidiaries. What works in the complexities of these areas will almost certainly work worldwide. Having discussed the structure, functioning principles and effects of my systems with tens of thousands of executives of all levels I have strong arguments that there is only one kind of management that works effectively, namely Right and Good Management as I present it in my books, and that it is - contrary to mainstream thinking - universally valid and culturally invariant. Fashionable arbitrariness which so often characterizes management should not be given any place in what is one of the most important social functions. In most respects my Wholistic Management Systems for Functioning are the opposite of what is taught in most business schools. That they will have to change fundamentally as a consequence of the global crisis is hesitatingly becoming apparent to some - among them also a few leading ivy league schools. But it might be a long and hard way for them to recover from the fallacies of their own teachings and partly from the application of wrong management to themselves. At the same time, however, if they manage to change radically and fast it is one of the greatest opportunities for them to show effective leadership in the service of a functioning society in times of great change. Fredmund Malik St. Gallen, January 2010 Introduction "The very first step toward success in any occupation is to become interested in it." Sir William Osler (1849 - 1919), physician Our increasingly complex world cannot function without management, and it can hardly function without precise management. This is true for all kinds of societal institutions, be it commercial enterprises or other organizations. The purpose of this book is to help their managers and employees fulfill their demanding occupational tasks in a professional manner. In the midst of a jumble of doctrines, ideologies, and true innovations, this book will provide the overview required to distinguish right from wrong and useful from useless. These distinctions are indispensable for meeting both individual and shared responsibilities at each stage of a professional career. They are also crucial for successful and productive interaction. This book is a compact compendium for right and good management - for general management - in that it provides the necessary overview of what it entails. In the following volumes of this series, each of the elements of right and good management will be described in greater detail, including both theoretical content and recommended implementation approaches. Interested readers will be able to familiarize themselves with the tools and practices of the craft, along with numerous practical examples. As such, the present book is a prelude to a practical, comprehensive guide to what the management craft and managerial professionalism must entail. Sound general management is not about doing something new, modern, or fashionable. What matters is that it is right, that it works, and that it helps practitioners fulfill their tasks to the best of their abilities. The subject of this book - and of the rest of my publications - is not the "management thinking of today". Rather, all my books are practical guides to effectiveness. They point out my personal opinions on different matters, which are often not in sync with mainstream thinking. Management. The Essence of the Craft continues, enlarges upon, and complements my book Managing Performing Living. While the latter deals with the conduct and actions of the individual manager, the present book goes much further in that it deals with the institution as a whole - with system-oriented general management. The book contains a series of propositions which, compared to mainstream thinking, may be regarded as provocative, unusual, and frequently even wrong - at least initially. In this book, and the books to follow, I am putting my arguments forward for discussion. Central Propositions 1.Management is society's most important function. The functioning of society depends on management. Only management turns resources into results. 2.Management can largely be acquired by learning. It is a profession and a craft. It follows the same rules of professionalism that are known and have proven useful in other professions. Talents are useful but not essential. 3.The only kind of management a person needs to learn is right and good management. Right and good management is universal, invariant, and independent of culture. It is equally valid for all kinds of organizations and all countries. There is no need for international, multicultural, or global management. All effective institutions function in the same way. They employ the same functional principles. 4.Apparent differences are not related to management but to the nature of the different tasks to be fulfilled in different organizations. 5.Not everyone can manage just any organization. This is not due to management skills but to the difference in operational tasks. 6.All managers in all organizations and across all hierarchy levels need the same kind of management skills. Not all, however, need them in the same degree of comprehensiveness and detail. Disregarding this principle leads to a lack of orientation and direction, which, in turn, means the end of communication and function. 7.In my view, most of the management ideas prevailing over the past fifteen years or so are false, misleading, and harmful. This is true in particular for anything related to the doctrine of shareholder value and its consequences - such as value-increasing strategies and a way of thinking that focuses predominantly on financial aspects. The stakeholder approach is equally wrong. 8.The economic difficulties of our time, which I believe will inevitably deepen, are largely due to factors other than political errors. They are results of misguided management, of faulty and poor management. As a result, the question as to what right and good management is gains all the more importance. A Word on the Terms Used In management - as opposed to other, more advanced and mature disciplines of learning - there is no such thing as uniform or common parlance. Quite to the contrary: most authors attempt to impress readers by inventing their own terms and slogans. This is a roadblock to progress and to acquiring management skills. For this book, I essentially draw on the terms used in the St. Gallen Management Model, the first and so far only wholistic, system-driven management model, as well as on the linguistic usage of Peter F. Drucker, the doyen of management theory. As far as cybernetics and system sciences are concerned, I draw on the terms used by Stafford Beer, the originator of management cybernetics, and my own book Strategie des Managements komplexer Systeme ["Strategy for the Management of Complex Systems"]. 1.The terms "company", "organization", and "institution" are largely used in the same sense. Certain variances in meaning relate to the degree of generality, or the special limitation to a segment of society. The most general terms are "institution" and "organization". They refer to all organizations existing in a society, no matter what kind or legal form. The term "company", in essence, belongs to the business sector. Whenever no specific pointers are provided, it will be clear from the context what I mean when using each of these terms. The term most frequently used in this book is "company" and other terms related to it, such as "corporate policy". The statements made will generally be applicable to all kinds of institutions. Depending on the field of usage, the terms might need to be adapted somewhat, as in "educational policy" or "health policy". 2.The term "management" itself can be understood in several ways: Firstly, as a function that exists in any kind of organization and is indispensable for its functioning. This is the so-called functional dimension of management. It is neither linked to specific persons nor to organizational elements. This function is not perceptible to our senses. It is incorporated in certain actions taken by individuals and in this way its impact is perceived. Secondly, the term "management" can be understood to be the sum of the legal and/or organizational authorities in an institution. Examples include the executive board of a private company, the executive committee of a public company, a national government, or a university's board of directors. This is referred to as the institutional dimension, and it also includes expanded boards of managers, group management, management circles, or partners' conferences. As far as mandatory and/or higher-level authorities are concerned, the respective responsibilities, rights, obligations, and accountabilities are governed by laws, articles of incorporation, or statutes. Those of other organizational entities are determined by common sense and habits. Thirdly, management can be understood to include the persons that belong to the institutional authorities mentioned. This is the personal dimension of management. In particular the terms "top management" and "top manager" frequently carry that meaning. 3.I use the term "management" in the same meaning as its German equivalent "Führung". Both terms mean the same. In all my German-language publications, I use the two terms synonymously. By contrast, the terms "management" and "leadership" do not mean the same. 4.In the chapter on structure, the term "organization" carries two different meanings: the first, as mentioned above, is what we refer to when we speak of an institution being an organization; the second is what we mean when we speak of an institution having an organization. Which one of the two meanings applies should be clear from the particular context.

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