krainaksiazek underdeveloped areas within the common market 20106715
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Opis - Introduction (...) the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and (...) it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that cooperation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends;1 Air passenger rights have become one of the most important consumer rights areas since the number of people who are travelling is growing every year.2 "Over the last thirty years, there has been a boom in mobility in Europe. For millions of citizens travel has become a reality, indeed a right (...) The air transport sector has seen a number of changes: the emergence of low cost airlines, the restructuring of other airlines, the opening up of new routes, and the availability of information or tickets on the Internet with a general reduction in fares. Millions of people have flown as a result of the setting up of an internal aviation market".3 According to Vice-President of the Commission Siim Kallas, responsible for transport "passengers need a common set of principles, so that they can be more easily aware of their rights if something goes wrong with their trip, regardless of the mode of transport they use or whether a journey takes place wholly within a single Member State or goes through an intra-Community or external frontier"4. Europe's success in securing and upholding passenger rights is one of the resounding achievements of the EU transport policy. Therefore, it was 1 Preamble to Convention on International Civil Aviation, signed at Chicago, on 7 December 1944 (Chicago Convention). 2 ECC-Net Air Passenger Rights Report 2011 - in the aftermath of the 'Volcanic Ash Crisis', October 2011 (available at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/ecc/docs/ecc_net_air_passenger_ report_2011.pdf). 3 Communication From The Commission To The European Parliament And The Council Strengthening passenger rights within the European Union, Brussels, 16.2.2005 COM(2005) 46 final. 4 http://ec.europa.eu/transport/passenger-rights/en/index.html 8 Introduction necessary for the European Community to strengthen the rights of passengers and to ensure that air carriers operate under harmonized conditions in a liberalized market. Liberalisation, however, is not enough. Other measures are needed to protect passengers' interests and ensure that they fully profit from the single market.5 Air passenger rights can cover the following fields: People with disabilities and people with reduced mobility; Denied boarding; Cancellation; Long delays; Problems with Baggage; Identity of the airline; Package holidays; Price transparency. All these fields are covered by special regulations. Notwithstanding the most controversial and with unclear provisions is Regulation (EC) 261/20046. Therefore, there is a need to analyse the existing judgments and different theories in legal doctrine regarding this Regulation. It introduced important new rights for air passengers in the event of denied boarding, long delay, cancellations and downgrading. The Regulation took effect on 18 February 2005 and sets a minimum level of quality standards in order to protect passengers. It repealed Regulation (EEC) No. 295/91 and it sets out the entitlements of air passengers when a flight that they intend to travel on is delayed or cancelled, or when they are denied boarding to such a flight due to overbooking, or when the airline is unable to accommodate them in the class they had booked. It is very important to ensure a high level of protection for passengers. Moreover, full account should be taken of the requirements of consumer protection in general. As it is stated in Preamble to Regulation 261/2004, denied boarding and cancellation or long delay of flights cause serious trouble and inconvenience to passengers and the number of passengers denied boarding against their will remains too high, as does that affected by cancellations without prior warning and that affected by long delays. Therefore, it was necessary for the European Community to strengthen the rights of passengers and to ensure that air carriers operate under harmonized conditions in a liberalized market. It is also stated that the number of passengers denied boarding against their will should be reduced by requiring air carriers to call for volunteers to surrender their reservations, in exchange for benefits, instead of denying passengers boarding, and by fully compensating those finally denied boarding and that passengers denied boarding against their will should be able either to cancel their flights, with reimbursement of their tickets, or to continue 5 European Commission, Air - legislation in force since 2005 at: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/ themes/passengers/air/index_en.htm 6 Official Journal of the European Union, L 46, pp. 1-7 (17-2-2004). Introduction 9 them under satisfactory conditions, and should be adequately cared for while awaiting a later flight.7 As IATA indicates, airlines are committed to looking after their passengers, and overlapping passenger rights regimes around the world creates difficulties for the industry and confusion for passengers. The patchwork of regimes defeats the purpose of providing passengers with clear, transparent rights that they can count on. Clear information to passengers on their rights should be the first priority of government and the industry.8 In response to this, the industry unanimously adopted a set of principles at the 2013 IATA Annual General Meeting. The principles call on governments to develop consumer protection regulations that:
Mechanical Design Elsevier Science & Technology
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
This book introduces the subject of total design, and introduces the design and selection of various common mechanical engineering components and machine elements. These provide "building blocks", with which the engineer can practice his or her art. The approach adopted for defining design follows that developed by the SEED (Sharing Experience in Engineering Design) programme where design is viewed as "the total activity necessary to provide a product or process to meet a market need." Within this framework the book concentrates on developing detailed mechanical design skills in the areas of bearings, shafts, gears, seals, belt and chain drives, clutches and brakes, springs and fasteners. Where standard components are available from manufacturers, the steps necessary for their specification and selection are developed. The framework used within the text has been to provide descriptive and illustrative information to introduce principles and individual components and to expose the reader to the detailed methods and calculations necessary to specify and design or select a component. To provide the reader with sufficient information to develop the necessary skills to repeat calculations and selection processes, detailed examples and worked solutions are supplied throughout the text. This book is principally a Year/Level 1 and 2 undergraduate text. Pre-requisite skills include some year one undergraduate mathematics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, principles of materials, statics and dynamics. However, as the subjects are introduced in a descriptive and illustrative format and as full worked solutions are provided, it is possible for readers without this formal level of education to benefit from this book. The text is specifically aimed at automotive and mechanical engineering degree programmes and would be of value for modules in design, mechanical engineering design, design and manufacture, design studies, automotive power-train and transmission and tribology, as well as modules and project work incorporating a design element requiring knowledge about any of the content described. The aims and objectives described are achieved by a short introductory chapters on total design, mechanical engineering and machine elements followed by ten chapters on machine elements covering: bearings, shafts, gears, seals, chain and belt drives, clutches and brakes, springs, fasteners and miscellaneous mechanisms. Chapters 14 and 15 introduce casings and enclosures and sensors and actuators, key features of most forms of mechanical technology. The subject of tolerancing from a component to a process level is introduced in Chapter 16. The last chapter serves to present an integrated design using the detailed design aspects covered within the book. The design methods where appropriate are developed to national and international standards (e.g. ANSI, ASME, AGMA, BSI, DIN, ISO). The first edition of this text introduced a variety of machine elements as building blocks with which design of mechanical devices can be undertaken. The approach adopted of introducing and explaining the aspects of technology by means of text, photographs, diagrams and step-by-step procedures has been maintained. A number of important machine elements have been included in the new edition, fasteners, springs, sensors and actuators. They are included here. Chapters on total design, the scope of mechanical engineering and machine elements have been completely revised and updated. New chapters are included on casings and enclosures and miscellaneous mechanisms and the final chapter has been rewritten to provide an integrated approach. Multiple worked examples and completed solutions are included. * New chapters on casings and enclosures, springs, and fasteners * New information on important machine elements such as sensors and actuators * Clear explanation of the total mechanical design process through the use of text, photographs, diagrams, step-by-step procedures and case studies
Political Economy of Collective Skill Formation Oxford University Press
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Education, skill formation, and training continue to be important areas of consideration for both public policy and research. This book examines the particular types of vocational training known as collective skill formation systems, whereby the training (often firm-based apprenticeships) is collectively organized by businesses and unions with state support and cooperation in execution, finance, and monitoring. With contributions from leading academics, this book is the first to provide a comprehensive analysis of the varying historical origins of, and recent developments in, vocational training systems, offering in-depth studies on coordinated market economies, namely Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Denmark. It also contains comparative chapters that analyse how these countries react to common challenges such as deindustrialization, labour market stratification, academic drift, gender inequalities, and Europeanization. Whereas previous research has focused on the differences between various kinds of skill regimes, this book focuses on explaining institutional variety within the group of collective skill formation systems. The development of skill formation systems is regarded as a dynamic political process, dependent on the outcome of various political struggles regarding such matters as institutional design and transformations during critical junctures in historical development.
European Securities Regulation Kluwer Law International
Prawo, akty prawne
Although efforts to regulate securities at a supranational European level date back to the first company law directive in 1968, it is only since the promulgation of the 1999 Financial Services Action Plan that the playing field has shown any real leveling for market participants. Now, since the adoption in June 2001 of the European Securities Committee as a rule-making authority implementing financial services directives, European securities regulation has emerged as a new and discrete field of legal scholarship. This authoritative book, by a well-known scholar who has been following the European frontier of securities regulation for over a decade, is the first to systematically map this dramatically accelerating new discipline and open the field to research, development, and specialization. Approaching the subject along six major avenues the value of substantive rules; regulatory harmonization; the underlying regulatory methodologies of enacted and proposed European directives; the common market prospectus for securities offerings; investment services; and insider trading Professor Warren never loses sight of the historical context within which European securities regulation has developed, nor of the global economic environment in which it must meet exacting standards of efficiency and transparency. His analysis clearly explains the securities implications of the European laws already adopted as a result of the European Commission s implementation of the Financial Services Action Plan (including the European Company Statute), and also points out the areas that still demand legislative and regulatory attention (including the essential development of an efficient centralized or cross-linked clearance and settlement system). European Securities Regulation will quickly become a standard work. Its great usefulness to scholars, financial regulators, and lawyers for corporate issuers, securities professionals, stock exchanges, and investors is indisputable.
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