krainaksiazek underdeveloped areas within the common market 20106715
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Książki & Multimedia > Książki
Opis - Introduction (...) the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and (...) it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that cooperation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends;1 Air passenger rights have become one of the most important consumer rights areas since the number of people who are travelling is growing every year.2 "Over the last thirty years, there has been a boom in mobility in Europe. For millions of citizens travel has become a reality, indeed a right (...) The air transport sector has seen a number of changes: the emergence of low cost airlines, the restructuring of other airlines, the opening up of new routes, and the availability of information or tickets on the Internet with a general reduction in fares. Millions of people have flown as a result of the setting up of an internal aviation market".3 According to Vice-President of the Commission Siim Kallas, responsible for transport "passengers need a common set of principles, so that they can be more easily aware of their rights if something goes wrong with their trip, regardless of the mode of transport they use or whether a journey takes place wholly within a single Member State or goes through an intra-Community or external frontier"4. Europe's success in securing and upholding passenger rights is one of the resounding achievements of the EU transport policy. Therefore, it was 1 Preamble to Convention on International Civil Aviation, signed at Chicago, on 7 December 1944 (Chicago Convention). 2 ECC-Net Air Passenger Rights Report 2011 - in the aftermath of the 'Volcanic Ash Crisis', October 2011 (available at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/ecc/docs/ecc_net_air_passenger_ report_2011.pdf). 3 Communication From The Commission To The European Parliament And The Council Strengthening passenger rights within the European Union, Brussels, 16.2.2005 COM(2005) 46 final. 4 http://ec.europa.eu/transport/passenger-rights/en/index.html 8 Introduction necessary for the European Community to strengthen the rights of passengers and to ensure that air carriers operate under harmonized conditions in a liberalized market. Liberalisation, however, is not enough. Other measures are needed to protect passengers' interests and ensure that they fully profit from the single market.5 Air passenger rights can cover the following fields: People with disabilities and people with reduced mobility; Denied boarding; Cancellation; Long delays; Problems with Baggage; Identity of the airline; Package holidays; Price transparency. All these fields are covered by special regulations. Notwithstanding the most controversial and with unclear provisions is Regulation (EC) 261/20046. Therefore, there is a need to analyse the existing judgments and different theories in legal doctrine regarding this Regulation. It introduced important new rights for air passengers in the event of denied boarding, long delay, cancellations and downgrading. The Regulation took effect on 18 February 2005 and sets a minimum level of quality standards in order to protect passengers. It repealed Regulation (EEC) No. 295/91 and it sets out the entitlements of air passengers when a flight that they intend to travel on is delayed or cancelled, or when they are denied boarding to such a flight due to overbooking, or when the airline is unable to accommodate them in the class they had booked. It is very important to ensure a high level of protection for passengers. Moreover, full account should be taken of the requirements of consumer protection in general. As it is stated in Preamble to Regulation 261/2004, denied boarding and cancellation or long delay of flights cause serious trouble and inconvenience to passengers and the number of passengers denied boarding against their will remains too high, as does that affected by cancellations without prior warning and that affected by long delays. Therefore, it was necessary for the European Community to strengthen the rights of passengers and to ensure that air carriers operate under harmonized conditions in a liberalized market. It is also stated that the number of passengers denied boarding against their will should be reduced by requiring air carriers to call for volunteers to surrender their reservations, in exchange for benefits, instead of denying passengers boarding, and by fully compensating those finally denied boarding and that passengers denied boarding against their will should be able either to cancel their flights, with reimbursement of their tickets, or to continue 5 European Commission, Air - legislation in force since 2005 at: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/ themes/passengers/air/index_en.htm 6 Official Journal of the European Union, L 46, pp. 1-7 (17-2-2004). Introduction 9 them under satisfactory conditions, and should be adequately cared for while awaiting a later flight.7 As IATA indicates, airlines are committed to looking after their passengers, and overlapping passenger rights regimes around the world creates difficulties for the industry and confusion for passengers. The patchwork of regimes defeats the purpose of providing passengers with clear, transparent rights that they can count on. Clear information to passengers on their rights should be the first priority of government and the industry.8 In response to this, the industry unanimously adopted a set of principles at the 2013 IATA Annual General Meeting. The principles call on governments to develop consumer protection regulations that:
European Securities Regulation Kluwer Law International
Prawo, akty prawne
Although efforts to regulate securities at a supranational European level date back to the first company law directive in 1968, it is only since the promulgation of the 1999 Financial Services Action Plan that the playing field has shown any real leveling for market participants. Now, since the adoption in June 2001 of the European Securities Committee as a rule-making authority implementing financial services directives, European securities regulation has emerged as a new and discrete field of legal scholarship. This authoritative book, by a well-known scholar who has been following the European frontier of securities regulation for over a decade, is the first to systematically map this dramatically accelerating new discipline and open the field to research, development, and specialization. Approaching the subject along six major avenues the value of substantive rules; regulatory harmonization; the underlying regulatory methodologies of enacted and proposed European directives; the common market prospectus for securities offerings; investment services; and insider trading Professor Warren never loses sight of the historical context within which European securities regulation has developed, nor of the global economic environment in which it must meet exacting standards of efficiency and transparency. His analysis clearly explains the securities implications of the European laws already adopted as a result of the European Commission s implementation of the Financial Services Action Plan (including the European Company Statute), and also points out the areas that still demand legislative and regulatory attention (including the essential development of an efficient centralized or cross-linked clearance and settlement system). European Securities Regulation will quickly become a standard work. Its great usefulness to scholars, financial regulators, and lawyers for corporate issuers, securities professionals, stock exchanges, and investors is indisputable.
Mutual Recognition of Product Standards GRIN Verlag
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Western Europe, grade: A, University of Flensburg, language: English, abstract: The European Community from its establishment attempted to enhance the economic integration and also to complete it with a political one. In European Union, as we know today, there are plenty of institutions and organs that serve this aim. Common Market-and its part of Internal Market- is the main tasks of European Union and the four fundamental freedoms of goods, persons, services and capital are to be ensured and encouraged within the European area. From the creation of European Community the removal of tariff barriers was essential for further integration, which easily came into force, by establishing Customs Union. The European Union in order to enhance the trade between the Member States and also to promote deeper integration adopted the harmonization policy, which simply means the approximation of all national laws that implies and confirms the supranational character that EU has (at least in some areas). Although, the harmonization policy is more secure for a supranational body, as EU is, has also disadvantages that mostly came into light from the practical experience. The New Approach Directives and the principle of Mutual recognition were adopted by the EU not only due to the weaknesses of the harmonization policy but more to eliminate these weaknesses. Following there is an attempt to examine the Old in comparison with New Approach and particularly to observe the Mutual Recognition principle and the new regulations that are being into force.
Elaboration case study: Burger King GRIN Verlag
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Seminar paper from the year 2011 in the subject Business economics - Marketing, Corporate Communication, CRM, Market Research, grade: 2,0, Gelsenkirchen University of Applied Sciences, course: International Marketing, language: English, abstract: Burger King Corporation (BKC) is a Florida corporation based in Miami. BKCoperates and grants franchises to operate quick-service hamburger restaurantsusing certain trademarks, service marks and trade names and procedures forinventory control and management.Franchise Offer: There are 3 types of franchises offered:Institutional Locations: "Institutional locations" include government buildingsand facilities, medical facilities, airports, train and bus stations, sports facilities,factories, corporate campuses, turnpikes, limited access toll roads, themeparks, zoos and educational facilities.Traditional Burger King Restaurant Facility: A self-contained, full size BurgerKing Restaurant which is located and operated on a site as a freestandingbuilding or within another building structure such as a shopping mall. ATraditional Burger King Restaurant does not share any common areas with anyother businesses and serves the standard approved menu for Burger KingRestaurants.Non-Traditional Burger King Facility: A Burger King Restaurant may belocated at a site which includes other businesses, such as retail, food service,gas stations, convenience stores, other franchised businesses or restaurants orother similar facilities.[...]
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
This one-of-a-kind package brings together everything you'll need to thoroughly prepare for your Cisco CCENT certification exam. For one discount price, you get Cisco CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-101 Official Cert Guide, the definitive Cisco Press exam prep guide, plus the state-of-the-art Cisco CCENT ICND1 100-101 Network Simulator for all the hands-on practice you'll ever need. Together, these outstanding study resources help you systematically prepare for every CCENT exam topic. In the book, Cisco CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-101 Official Cert Guide, bestselling author and expert instructor Wendell Odom shares preparation hints and test-taking tips, helping you identify areas of weakness and improve both your conceptual knowledge and hands-on skills. This complete study package includes * A test-preparation routine proven to help you pass the exams * "Do I Know This Already?" quizzes, which enable you to decide how much time you need to spend on each section * Chapter-ending and part-ending exercises, which help you drill on key concepts you must know thoroughly * Troubleshooting sections, which help you master the complex scenarios you will face on the exam * The powerful Pearson IT Certification Practice Test software, complete with hundreds of well-reviewed, exam-realistic questions, customization options, and detailed performance reports * More than 90 minutes of personal video mentoring from the author * A final preparation chapter, which guides you through tools and resources to help you craft your review and test-taking strategies * Study plan suggestions and templates to help you organize and optimize your study time Cisco CCENT ICND1 100-101 Network Simulator helps you develop and improve hands-on configuration and troubleshooting skills without the investment in expensive lab hardware. This state-of-the-art, interactive simulation software enables you to practice your networking skills with more than 250 structured labs designed to help you learn by doing, the most effective method of learning. Topics covered include router and switch navigation and administration, Ethernet LAN switches, VLANs and trunking, IPv4 and IPv6 addressing and subnetting, operating Cisco routers, learning IPv4 routes with OSPFv2, configuring and verifying host connectivity, subnet design, VLSM, route summarization, IPv4 Access Control Lists (ACL), Network Address Translation (NAT), IPv6 routing, and network troubleshooting. Experience realistic network device responses as you perform each lab, which include detailed instructions, topology diagrams, critical-thinking questions, hints, and answers. Working through the labs, you will quickly become proficient with all the common Cisco IOS version 15 router and switch commands on the CCENT exam. Choose from more than 250 labs organized by lab type or by topic. Track your progress with the lab status indicator, and use the new search feature to search for commands and keywords. Review lab objectives and step-by-step instructions within each lab, opening hints and tips sections that help you when you get stuck. Record your observations on device performance in interactive tables. Enter answes to critical thinking questions and get instant feedback to verify your work. Access performance reports in this easy-to-navigate grade history screen, which store all your attempts on each lab. View device configuration details, lab question performance, time to complete each lab, and CLI activity for each device in every lab. Export lab results to PDF files for easy sharing. Unlike other simulators on the market, the lab scenarios included in the Cisco CCENT ICND1 100-101 Network Simulator are far more complex, challenging you to learn how to perform real-world network configuration and troubleshooting tasks. Well-regarded for their level of detail, study plans, assessment features, challenging review questions and exercises, video instruction, and hands-on labs, these study tools help you master the concepts and techniques that ensure your exam success. Network Simulator Minimum System Requirements: * Microsoft Windows XP (SP3), Windows Vista (32-bit/64-bit) with SP1, Windows 7 (32-bit/64-bit) or Windows 8 (32-bit/64-bit, Desktop UI only) * Mac OS X 10.6, 10.7, or 10.8 * Intel Pentium III 1GHz or faster processor * 512MB RAM (1GB recommended) * 500MB hard disk space * 32-bit color depth at 1024x768 resolution * Adobe Acrobat Reader version 8.1 and above * Connection to the Internet during installation for access code validation Other applications installed during installation: * Adobe AIR 3.8 * Captive JRE 6 Pearson IT Certification Practice Test Minimum System Requirements: * Windows XP (SP3), Windows Vista (SP2), Windows 7, or Windows 8 * Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0 Client * Pentium class 1GHz processor (or equivalent) * 512MB RAM * 650MB disc space plus 50MB for each downloaded practice exam * Connection to the Internet during installation for registration and downloading of exams Both of these software products are single-user license desktop software applications.
Construction Calculations Manual ELSEVIER
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Written by one of the premier professionals in the field, "Construction Calculations Manual" provides end users with the calculations necessary for ensuring the on-time project delivery, within-budget projects. The proposed book will provide an owner, planning a construction project, with detailed calculations regarding site work, piping and pipe fitting, cost estimation, and overall project management. The only book of its kind on the market today, this guide gives you all essential calculations used on the construction site. Day-to-day construction work calculations are presented in plain easy to read language. Time Saving calculations include: Complete Stair calculations for Risers, Treads, Stringer Length and Incline Angle; Set Riser Height and solve for Stairwell Opening; Built-in Right-Angle Functions for Square-ups, Slopes; Area, Volume and Perimeter solutions with Length, Width and Height Keys; Drywall, Siding and Paneling Key calculates; Roof Function finds Area, Bundles, Squares and 4x8 Sheathing for Flat or Pitched Roofs; Compound Miter - Store Crown Angle and Enter Wall Corner Angle to calculate the Blade Tilt and Angle for Miters cuts; and, Board Feet Lumber estimating. All calculations are categorized according to equipment type - and sample calculations, applications and examples are provided. With this book in hand, owners, construction managers, construction engineers, architects, and contractor will find manual a valuable guide to some of the most common and difficult calculations in all aspects of construction. This title features: work in and convert between building dimensions, including metric; built-in right-angle solutions; areas, volumes, square-ups; complete stair layouts; roof, rafter and framing solutions; and, circle - arcs, circumference, segments.
IEEE Wireless Dictionary Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers...
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
This is an easy-to-read, handy guide to the current terms used within 46 IEEE Standards and the wireless technology world. It includes nearly 3,200 terms and definitions with complete source citations. Search for terms by keyword, standard number or alphabetically This CD-ROM also features easy-to-read equations and formulas. This CD-ROM is more than a dictionary in most cases it reads like an encyclopedia. Rather than just giving a terse definition for various wireless terms, many of the definitions contain additional information to provide context for understanding the term. A little history is added where appropriate as well as some opinion regarding the technical and marketing issues that make the design of wireless systems so interesting. The Overview addresses a couple of topics that are common to many of the definitions, frequency bands and the OSI networking model. Wireless technology, like many other technical fields, has its own set of jargon and acronyms. Many times, these acronyms are used simply to reduce the effort required to describe concepts. The goal of this CD-ROM is to provide meaning for the acronyms and jargon used in the wireless industry with a particular emphasis on commercial systems. Although not exhaustive, an additional goal was to include the most commonly used terms. Individuals who are experts in one particular field, e.g., 3G cellular or WLANs, will find terms from other fields with which they may be unfamiliar. Individuals who need to have broad view of the wireless landscape will find that this CD-ROM covers most of the topics and terms that are important in today's market. Technology areas that are addresses in the CD-ROM include: ad hoc networks, broadband wireless access (BWA), coexistence, integrity/confidentiality, interference, low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN), media independent handover, mobile broadband wireless access, mobility, quality of service (QoS), RF/microwave exposure assessment, SAR measurements, vehicular mobility, wireless access, wireless communications, wireless local area networks (WLANs), wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs), wireless networks security, wireless personal area networks (WPANs), as well as wireless regional area networks (WRANs).
Environmental Impact Assessments: A Need for Harmonisation of EU Law? VDM Verlag Dr. Müller
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) were developed since the 1960ies to serve as tools to predict environmental pressures of projects. In the EU, the "EIA Directive" has been in place for 25 years. It provides a framework within which each member state can find its own ways to implement EIA legislation that is coherent with the scopes and minimum standards of community law. This subsidiarity of the EIA directive creates a conflict between harmonisation and autonomy: Too stringent regimes will fail to acknowledge local environmental conditions; too loose ones will create different economic conditions under which companies should operate in different EU member states. This book seeks to evaluate the degree of divergence in EIA laws between individual member states: A comparative study on the EIA laws of Germany, Austria and the United Kingdom (specifically England and Wales). Despite the fact that all three countries have relatively advanced environmental legislation, significant differences could be identified. This book highlights areas in which a harmonisation of community law might be necessary for the sake of the Common European Market.
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