krainaksiazek understanding the social world research methods for the 21st century 20169224
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Research Methods for Product Design LAURENCE KING PUBLISHERS
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
This book provides the reader with a comprehensive, relevant, and visually rich insight into the world of research methods specifically aimed at product designers. It includes practical case studies and tutorials that will inform, inspire and help you to conduct product design research better. Product designers need a comprehensive understanding of research methods as their day-to-day work routinely involves them observing people, asking questions, searching for information, making and testing ideas, and ultimately generating 'solutions' to 'problems'. Manifest in the design process is the act of research. Huge technological advances in information, computing and manufacturing processes also offer enormous opportunities to product designers such as the development of 'intelligent' products and services, but at the same time raise important research questions that need to be dealt with. Product designers are, in many ways, best placed to address these challenges because of the manner in which they apply their design thinking to problems. This book demonstrates in a clear, highly visual and structured fashion how research methods can support product designers and help them address the very real issues the world currently faces in the 21st century.
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
- Historical Materialism Series - This original and comprehensive study explores the formation, development and later 20th century enrichments on Marx's historical materialism theories. It innovatively interprets its formation period between 1835-1845 which has always been the object of heated discussions. The author gives special attention on the thoughts Marx and Engels had similarities and even agreement with their contemporaries especially Feuerbach and followers of Hegel. Naturally each philosopher has his own specific formation which applies for Marx, and his unique differences with his contemporaries at the certain point of time rapidly led him to establish the materialist concept of history. Recently we see a revival of interest in the nature and utility of this discovery by Marx. Debate amongst historians and philosophers on Marx's assertions on the role of man as the subject of history also the relations between Marx's practice view and historical materialism is an important focus of the book which has an impressive record three editions within ten years. Chen Xianda passionately argues, "Social science can fully become as accurate as natural science. To do this, the first thing is to determine its nature accurately, that is, to have a scientific understanding of the macroscopic laws of history. Different from living organisms, the social organism has its unique laws. The various systems in society with their special structures and functions are interrelated and constitute an indivisible whole. It is impossible to understand society without grasping the laws of social development and without analyzing the nature and complex causality in social phenomena. However, human understanding of society cannot rest on the qualitative analysis, and quantitative analysis should be conducted wherever it is possible. With the emergence of world-wide technological revolutions, the spread of the system theories, control/simulation theory, information theory and even mathematical methods being applied into social sciences provides conditions for the accurate grasp of the quantitative determination of social phenomena. The mutual permeation between natural science and social science is a progressive tendency, and Marxist philosophy researchers should face the world and the contemporary era, and summarize the new achievements in those technological revolutions. The achievements in natural science enrich and affirm instead of reducing the scientific character of the materialist conception of history. No methods offered by natural science can replace the materialist conception of history, and history has proved that the methods of positivism and empiricism were unsuitable." The author is among the leading researchers of history and theories of Marxism in China, who greatly influenced several important debates in the Chinese academia in the last three decades, including those on Marxist humanism, the role of superstructure, ontology and practical materialism. The generous appendix part of the book with six of his famous articles, contains author's important direct contributions to these debates, including his ideas on the present issues of Marxist philosophy in China and the world.
Social Psychology Matters OPEN UNIVERSITY WORLDWIDE
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Social Psychology Matters explores the significance of social psychology in the twenty-first century and the important contribution it can and does make to understanding ourselves and others in today s world. This book is designed to help the reader navigate the complex and ever-changing nature of the discipline and gain an overview of the key concepts, methods and theories.§The authors adopt a broad approach to trace the roots and legacies of social psychology with a keen eye to the future. Each chapter provides an in-depth look at a social psychological topic of significance, ranging from self and conflict to families and embodiment. §Four theoretical perspectives cognitive social, discursive psychological, phenomenological and social psychoanalytic enable students to critically analyse social psychological research. §These perspectives are interpreted through the interrogative themes of:§Individual society dualism §Agency structure dualism §Situated knowledges §Power relations §This stimulating and accessible text uses real-life experience to demonstrate why social psychology matters and how our understanding of these topics can be continually enhanced and constructively applied.
Penicillin Oxford University Press
Medycyna > English Division
Penicillin is the drug of the twentieth century. It was the first of the antibiotics that, for decades after the Second World War, underpinned a popular belief that infectious disease had at last met its match. With the emergence of 'superbugs' in recent decades these hopes have faded. Across the world, we are warned that widespread antibiotic abuse will inexorably erode the drugs' efficacy and our own earlier confidence in them. Penicillin pulls these different but conjoined stories into a compelling narrative spanning the second half of the twentieth century. Using a wealth of new research, Robert Bud sets the discovery and use of penicillin in the broader context of social and cultural change across the world. He examines the drug's critical contributions to medicine and agriculture, and he investigates the global spread of resistant bacteria as antibiotic use continues to rise. Clearly written and highly topical, his book will be of great interest to historians, scientists, and anyone wishing to understand penicillin's seismic impact on modern life. [A] Terrific book. History of Philosophy and Life Sciences ...very impressive. The Journal of BJHS ...well written and based on outstanding research. Journal of the Historical Association ...an entensively researched and gripping saga...an enjoyable read...the story unfolds like a political thriller; the plot just as thrilling as the best fiction. Dr Tina Matthews, The Bulletin of The Royal College of Pathologists Bud has an engaging and flowing style that allows him to tell the story in a thorough yet gripping way. This is a scholarly but very readable book; Bud's long-standing interest in the history of penicillin clearly shows in the depth and thoroughness of his analysis. Stuart Anderson, Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 62, 335-336 A thorough and approachable review...a fascinating story. His prose is...precise and eminently authoritative. His data is superbly referenced. John Dwyer, Times Literary Supplement ...a fascinating overview of the development and marketing of penicillin. Allen F Shaughnessy, British Medical Journal ...a compelling perspective on the achievements of 20th-century medicine, and how they have given rise to new challenges for the 21st. Jon Turney, THES [An] insightful and thorough history. Financial Times This is a serious and thorough text from OUP, with a number of important messages for doctors and patients alike. Dr Jeremy Sager, Univadis Review ...a story full of human interest that general readers will enjoy. Hugh Pennington, Nature A highly detailed account of how we arrived at what may be the threshold of a post-antibiotic age, containing a wealth of medical and social history. Jo Whelan, New Scientist This extremely well-written and exhaustively researched book is invaluable in understanding the story of penicillin I. Richman, Choice Reviews Online Bud's volume offers much food for thought. The Lancet ...a well-done, throughly researched documentary. Christopher Lawrence ISIS ...of interest to historians, scientists and anyone wishing to understand penicillin's impact on modern life. CABI
Borehole Climatology Elsevier Science Ltd
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Climate for the 21st century is expected to be considerably different from the present and recent past. Industrialization growth combined with the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and massive deforestation are well above the values over the past several decades and are expected to further grow. Air temperature is rising rapidly well as does the weather variability producing frequent extreme events. Six of the ten warmest years occurred in the 1990s. Temperatures predicted for the 21st century ranges well above the present day value. The time period of the last 100-200 years covered by the direct meteorological observations is too short and does not provide material to reliably assess what may happen over the next hundred(s) years. A faithful prediction of the future requires understanding how climate system works, i.e. to reconstruct past climate much further in the past.Borehole paleoclimatology enables climate reconstruction of the past several millennia, unlike proxy methods provides direct past temperature assessment and can well broaden the areal range to the remote regions poorly covered with meteorological observations. Considerable debates have recently focused on the causes of the present-day warming, i.e. to distinguish between the natural and anthropogenic contribution to the observed temperature increase, eventually to quantify their regional distribution. Complex interpretation of borehole data with the proxies and additional socio-economic information can hopefully help. On observed data taken in various places all over the world we demonstrate suitable examples of the interaction between the subsurface temperature response to time changes in vegetation cover, land-use (farming) and urbanization.Precise temperature-time monitoring in shallow subsurface can further provide the magnitude of the present-day warming within relatively short time intervals. As far as we know, there exists so far no book dealing entirely with the subject of the Borehole climatology. Only relatively rarely this method is mentioned in otherwise plentiful literature on climate reconstruction or on climate modelling. There are, however, series of papers focussing on various borehole - climate related studies in numerous journals (e.g. "Global and Planetary Change", "Climate Change", "Tectonophysics", "Journal of Geophysical Research" and "Geophysical Research Letters", etc). Time to time a special issue appears to summarize papers on this topic presented during specialized symposia.This title offers a description of a new useful alternative paleoclimate reconstruction method. It is a suitable source of information for those wishing to learn more about climate change. It includes: material for lecturing and use in the classroom; ample practical examples of borehole temperature inversions worldwide; and, ample illustrations and reference list. The authors have a good knowledge of the problem based on more than 20 years of experience, one of them actually pioneered the method.
Dendroclimatology Springer Netherlands
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
A top priority in climate research is obtaining broad-extent and long-term data to support analyses of historical patterns and trends, and for model development and evaluation. Along with directly measured climate data from the present and recent past, it is important to obtain estimates of long past climate variations spanning multiple centuries and millennia. These longer time perspectives are needed for assessing the unusualness of recent climate changes, as well as for providing insight on the range, variation and overall dynamics of the climate system over time spans exceeding available records from instruments, such as rain gauges and thermometers.§Tree rings have become increasingly valuable in providing this long-term information because extensive data networks have been developed in temperate and boreal zones of the Earth, and quantitative methods for analyzing these data have advanced. Tree rings are among the most useful paleoclimate information sources available because they provide a high degree of chronological accuracy, high replication, and extensive spatial coverage spanning recent centuries. With the expansion and extension of tree-ring data and analytical capacity new climatic insights from tree rings are being used in a variety of applications, including for interpretation of past changes in ecosystems and human societies. §This volume presents an overview of the current state of dendroclimatology, its contributions over the last 30 years, and its future potential. The material included is useful not only to those who generate tree-ring records of past climate-dendroclimatologists, but also to users of their results-climatologists, hydrologists, ecologists and archeologists.§ With the pressing climatic questions of the 21st century demanding a deeper understanding of the climate system and our impact upon it, this thoughtful volume comes at critical moment. It will be of fundamental importance in not§only guiding researchers, but in educating scientists and the interested lay person on the both incredible power and potential pitfalls of reconstructing climate using tree-ring analysis. , Glen M. MacDonald, UCLA Institute of the Environment, CA, USA§ This is an up-to-date treatment of all branches of tree-ring science, by the world s experts in the field, reminding us that tree rings are the most important source of proxy data on climate change. Should be read by all budding dendrochronology scientists. , Alan Robock, Rutgers University, NJ, USA
GMO Food Libraries Unlimited Inc
Książki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Genetic engineering has long been used to impart desirable characteristics to food plants in order to improve crop yield, pest resistance, and herbicide tolerance. Genetic modification of foods, however, has created a storm of controversy everywhere in the world-including the United States. What are the benefits of and risks involved with genetically modified organisms (GMO) and crops? What powerful industry pressures have extended the sale and use of GMO foods and crops globally? And how should consumer food products that involve GM ingredients be labeled? GMO Food: A Reference Handbook addresses these questions and the complex issues involved, allowing readers to fully understand why genetically modified organisms represent one of the most important issues in the 21st century. The book provides clear, factual information and background on the history of genetically modified crops and foods, covering topics such as the historic methods of plant and animal modification (such as cross-breeding) and important discoveries in genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, genetic engineering, and related fields; the social, political, philosophical, and economic issues that have arisen with these scientific advances; and the laws and regulations that have resulted from the range of attitudes about GMO foods. The book also supplies additional resources for readers performing extensive research in an annotated bibliography of books, articles, reports, and web pages.
Książki Obcojęzyczne>Angielskie>Humanities>History>Earliest times to present day>21st century history: from c 2000 -Książki Obcojęzyczn...
Helps Draw The Road Map For Counterinsurgency In The Postmodern World. This Book Is Suitable For Cadets And Junior Military Leaders - As Well As General Readers Seeking A Deeper Understanding Of The Wars In Iraq And Afghanistan.
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