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Cracow Indological Studies XV. History and Society as Depcted in Indian Literature and Art. Part II. ¦RAVYA. Poetry & Prose Księgarnia Akademicka Sp. z o.o.
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IntroductionThe present volume of Cracow Indological Studies contains articles addressing different issues pertaining to a broadly formulated subject Histoiy and Society as Described in Indian Literature and Art. Its first part (Cracow Indological Studies, vol. 14) was devoted to visual and performing arts, as obviously the interpretation of sculptures, paintings, objects of craft as well as film art cannot be neglected while searching for pieces of information providing a better insight into the ancient and modern histoiy of India. The articles presented in the second part use literary sources in order to examine diverse aspects of the past and present. Similarly to the first part, which contains in its subtitle the Sanskrit word drsya-‘what should be looked at’-and in this way brings together the varied phenomena which can be described by this term, starting from ancient Indian theatrical art and finishing with modem Indian cinematography, the present volume’s subtitle also refers to the indigenous Indian theory of literature, using the Sanskrit word sravya or ‘what should be listened to’, ‘what is worth listening to’. This term covers both poetry and prose compositions. The authors of this particular volume bring manifold literary works, among them also scientific treatises and scriptures, which ‘should be listened to’ to readers’ attention and analyse them in order to have a better understanding of Indian society and culture. The essentially plural identity of Indian literature is represented in this volume by the pan-Indian Sanskrit literary tradition, Hindi literary culture encompassing the North of India and the most important and ancient among the South Indian Dravidic literatures, namely Tamil writings. The specialists explore a great number of issues: the relations between writing, history and ideology, gender, class, changing sensibilities, discourse and language-to name only a few.The opening article by Tiziana Pontillo introduces the fascinating question of asceticism as a permanent life choice. The authoress quotes Raghuvamsa passages regarding renunciation as a praiseworthy act rather than an obvious course of life. She focuses on two relevant passages from the Buddhacarita: one of them presents Buddha’s father, whose lineage probably did not observe the brahmanic varna- srama system, however wishing that his son would go successively through prescribed stages of life and not renounce the world too early. Indeed, Asvaghosa’s work reflects the socio-religious conflict between the brahmanic inclusivistic theory of four ordered stages of life and the Buddhist encouragement to renounce the world (here the latter path is unusually called arsamarga). The article elaborates also on the term suksma dharma, interpreting it as an ‘uncertain common dharma path’, constituting the point of departure for both, the true Buddhist dharma and the brahmanic srauta reform.The next paper, “Political Metaphors in the Mahakavya. The Conceptual Metaphor THE STATE IS THE HUMAN BODY in Magha’s Sisupala- vadha”, authored by Anna Trynkowska, applies cognitive linguistics methods in order to study the metaphor. The selected stanzas concern politics, a subject which appears prominently in Sanskrit court poems, and the conceptual metaphor under discussion is “the state is the human body”. Trynkowska shows it in the relevant passages of Magha’s poem entitled Sisupalavadha. Perhaps it is not surprising that the majority of examples provided by Magha focus on the condition of the state and its stability. The fitness of the human body is mapped onto political stability and the power of functional elements of the state. Political enemies are conceptualized here in terms of diseases, causing an inappropriate condition of the human body. There are also stanzas naming these dangerous diseases, consumption being referred to most frequently. Trynkowska presents the set of mappings used in these metaphors, specifying the categories in the source domain (the human body, its structure and condition as well as the causes of an inappropriate condition of the body and their remedies) and the corresponding functional elements of the state in the target domain. The proposed method of analysis sheds more light on the structure of such stylistic devices and helps in a better understanding and noticing of their specific features.The epic poem which Tomasz Winiarski discusses is the famous Raghuvamsa by Kalidasa. The author has identified a very interesting passage in its sixteenth canto (verses 4-24), which presents a dying capital city in a very specific way. The main stress is on the role of the female characters in the description. Step by step Winiarski introduces the reader into the sophisticated technique implied by Kalidasa, namely the process of deconstructing/reconstructing the image of the city, a subtle play between reality and illusion, the past and present, light and darkness. The images stereotypical and characteristic of kavya literature are put into an unusual context and combined in unusual ways. As Winiarski points out, taking kavya works as the source of knowledge “may be deceptive if one wants to know what the physical reality and the form of a city was”, but “it is a valid and maybe the only source to answer the question of what it meant for Indians of that time. (...) the way urban life was rendered in stories and poetry was, and still is, a way to fully understand what the city was, how to be a part of it, and how to preserve its existence and meaning.”The following two papers deal with the Sanskrit historiography in South India.Rajendran Chettiarthodi examines the Musikavamsa, a poem written in the 11th century by Atula, as an example of sanskritization of regional history. Choosing Sanskrit as his medium and the mahakavya as a form of expression Atula made an attempt to enhance the prestige of his patron, king Srikantha of the Musika dynasty ruling over North Kerala (...)
Dictatorship as Experience Berghahn Books
Ksi±żki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
"The essays presented display a realm of vibrant historical inquiry. Many of the chapters significantly expand our understanding of the complexity of GDR society." * Central European History "This is certainly the best single volume on the social and cultural history of the GDR in English, and indeed ranks highly among works in German as well." * German Politics A decade after the collapse of communism, this volume presents a historical reflection on the perplexing nature of the East German dictatorship. In contrast to most political rhetoric, it seeks to establish a middle ground between totalitarianism theory, stressing the repressive features of the SED-regime, and apologetics of the socialist experiment, emphasizing the normality of daily lives. The book transcends the polarization of public debate by stressing the tensions and contradictions within the East German system that combined both aspects by using dictatorial means to achieve its emancipatory aims. By analyzing a range of political, social, cultural, and chronological topics, the contributors sketch a differentiated picture of the GDR which emphasizes both its repressive and its welfare features. The sixteen original essays, especially written for this volume by historians from both east and west Germany, represent the cutting edge of current research and suggest new theoretical perspectives. They explore political, social, and cultural mechanisms of control as well as analyze their limits and discuss the mixture of dynamism and stagnation that was typical of the GDR. Konrad H. Jarausch is Lurcy Professor of European Civilization at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and a Director of the Zentrum fur Zeithistorische Studien in Potsdam, Germany.
Constitutional Theory COMBINED ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS
Ksi±żki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Carl Schmitt's magnum opus, "Constitutional Theory", was originally published in 1928 and has been in print in German ever since. This volume makes Schmitt's masterpiece of comparative constitutionalism available to English-language readers for the first time. Schmitt is considered by many to be one of the most original - and, because of his collaboration with the Nazi party, controversial - political thinkers of the twentieth century. In "Constitutional Theory", Schmitt provides a highly original and provocative interpretation of the Weimar Constitution. At the centre of this interpretation lies his famous argument that the legitimacy of a constitution depends on a sovereign decision of the people. In addition to being subject to long-standing debate among legal and political theorists in Western Europe and the United States, this theory of constitution-making as decision has profoundly influenced constitutional theorists and designers in Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. "Constitutional Theory" is a significant departure from Schmitt's more polemical Weimar-era works not just in terms of its moderate tone. Through a comparative history of constitutional government in Europe and the United States, Schmitt develops an understanding of liberal constitutionalism that makes room for a strong, independent state. This edition includes an introduction by Jeffrey Seitzer and Christopher Thornhill that outlines the cultural, intellectual, and political contexts, in which Schmitt wrote "Constitutional Theory"; points out what is distinctive about the work; examines how it has been received in the postwar era; and considers its larger theoretical ramifications. This volume also contains extensive editorial notes and a translation of the Weimar Constitution.
Jarett Kobek - Atta Semiotext (E)
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Ours is a century of fear. Governments and mass media bombard us with words and images: desert radicals, "rogue states," jihadists, WMDs, existential enemies of freedom. We labor beneath myths that neither address nor describe the present situation, monstrous deceptions produced by a sound bite society. There is no reckoning of actuality, no understanding of the individual lives that inaugurated this echo chamber.In the summer of 1999, Mohamed Atta defended a master's thesis that critiqued the introduction of Western-style skyscrapers in the Middle East and called for the return of the "Islamic-Oriental city." Using this as a departure point, Jarett Kobek's novel ATTA offers a fictionalized psychedelic biography of Mohamed Atta that circles around a simple question: what if 9/11 was as much a matter of architectural criticism as religious terrorism? Following the development of a socially awkward boy into one of history's great villains, Kobek demonstrates the need for a new understanding of global terrorism. Joined in this volume by a second work, "The Whitman of Tikrit"--a radical reimagining of Saddam Hussein's last day before capture--ATTA is a brutal, relentless, and ultimately fearless corrective to ten years of propaganda and pandering.
Whose American Revolution Was It? COMBINED ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS
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The meaning of the American Revolution has always been a much contested question, and asking it is particularly important today: the standard, easily digested narrative puts the Founding Fathers at the head of a unified movement, failing to acknowledge the deep divisions in Revolutionary-era society and the many different historical interpretations that have followed. Whose American Revolution Was It? speaks both to the ways diverse groups of Americans who lived through the Revolution might have answered that question and to the different ways historians through the decades have interpreted the Revolution for our own time. As the only volume to offer an accessible and sweeping discussion of the period's historiography and its historians, Whose American Revolution Was It? is an essential reference for anyone studying early American history. The first section, by Alfred F. Young, begins in 1925 with historian J. Franklin Jameson and takes the reader through the successive schools of interpretation up to the 1990s. The second section, by Gregory H. Nobles, focuses primarily on the ways present-day historians have expanded our understanding of the broader social history of the Revolution, bringing onto the stage farmers and artisans, who made up the majority of white men, as well as African Americans, Native Americans, and women of all social classes.
Sources of Japanese Tradition Columbia University Press
Ksi±żki / Literatura obcojęzyczna
Sources of Japanese Tradition is a best-selling classic, unrivaled for its wide selection of source readings on history, society, politics, education, philosophy, and religion in the Land of the Rising Sun. In this long-awaited second edition, the editors have revised or retranslated most of the texts in the original 1958 edition, and added a great many selections not included or translated before. They have also restructured volume 1 to span the period from the early Japanese chronicles to the end of the sixteenth century. New additions include: o readings on early and medieval Shinto and on the tea ceremony, o readings on state Buddhism and Chinese political thought influential in Japan, and o sections on women's education, medieval innovations in the uses of history, and laws and precepts of the medieval warrior houses. Together, the selections shed light on the development of Japanese civilization in its own terms, without reference to Western parallels, and will continue to assist generations of students and lay readers in understanding Japanese culture.
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t1=0.107, t2=0, t3=0, t4=0.025, t=0.108